• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|国际商贸代写International Business代考|Formation of the contract of sale according to the CISG

As explained in Chapter 2, an agreement consists of an offer and its acceptance (Art. 18, 21, 23 CISG). The offer is valid the moment it reaches the other party. The offerer has the opportunity to withdraw the offer up to and including the moment the offer reaches the offeree (Art. $15 \mathrm{CISG}$ ). If the offer becomes valid, the offeree has time to think it over. The time allowed for consideration depends on the content of the offer and whether or not the offer was in writing (Art. 18 CISG). Up to the moment the offeree sends his acceptance, the offerer has the option of revoking his offer – unless the offer is irrevocable (Art. 16 CISG). The offeree can decide to accept the offer, refuse it or make a counter offer to the offerer. If he decides on a counter offer, there will then be a new offer on the table (Art. 17, 19, 22 CISG). The moment the acceptance reaches the offerer there is an agreement (Art. 18 CISG).

The CISG will be dealt with by studying small cases, all of them dealing with either one or some Articles of the CISG. First the relevant Articles of the CISG are mentioned, and these are followed by the accompanying exercises. The answers to all exercises can be found in the Articles of the CISG mentioned above each exercise and in paragraph 5.4. Studying the exercises gives a good overview of legal problems which can arise from international sales contracts and how the CISG can provide solutions.
Exercises $5.1,5.2$ and $5.3$ should be tackled with reference to Art. $14-23$ CISG. The answers can be found in paragraph 5.4.

## 会计代写|国际商贸代写International Business代考|Committing a breach of contract under the CISG

In a contract of sale there are two parties: a seller and a buyer and the CISG is therefore set up accordingly. Both seller and buyer can commit a breach of contract i.e. not abiding by the obligations under their contract of sale or the CISG. A breach of contract enables the other party to resort to certain options available under the CISG.

Schedule $5.1$ shows what the obligations of both seller and buyer are, and what the options for both seller and buyer are should there be a breach of contract. The Articles of the CISG containing this information are mentioned in Schedule 5.1. This schedule is of help in nearly all the exercises on the CISG that follow.

Bear in mind that following a breach of contract, the seller and the buyer cannot both resort to all the options mentioned above at the same time. The buyer e.g. cannot require performance within an additional period and declare the contract avoided at the same time (Art. 46, 47, 49 CISG). This is because the delivery to be made by the seller is based on the same contract. Declaring the contract avoided by the buyer cannot be combined with a reduction of the selling price (Art. $50 \mathrm{CISG}$ ), as payment by the buyer is based on that same contract. Claiming damages – if the buyer or the seller has suffered damage – is an option always available to both parties, regardless of other options being used (Art. 74 CISG).

# 国际商贸代考

## 会计代写|国际商贸代写International Business代考|Formation of the contract of sale according to the CISG

CISG 将通过研究小案例来处理，所有这些案例都涉及 CISG 的一个或一些条款。首先提到了 CISG 的相关条款，然后是相应的练习。所有练习的答案都可以在上述每个练习和第 5.4 段中提到的《销售公约》条款中找到。研究这些练习可以很好地概述国际销售合同可能产生的法律问题以及 CISG 如何提供解决方案。

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