assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师

assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写离散数学discrete mathematics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写离散数学discrete mathematics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写离散数学discrete mathematics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|离散数学作业代写discrete mathematics代考|Operations on Sets: Set Diagrams

The operations on sets are defined through the Boolean operations over the propositions. We always assume that all the sets under consideration are subsets of a certain universal set $\mathcal{U}$.

Definition 11. The complement of a given set $\mathrm{A} \subset \mathcal{U}$ is the set of all the ele ments of $\mathcal{U}$ not belonging to A. Sometimes the complement is denoted as an upper bar $\bar{A}$ or as a superscript $A^{c}$ ( $c$ stands for complement). It is obvious that $\mathcal{U} \backslash A=A^{c}$, thus, the set-difference $B \backslash A$ may be called the relative complement of A to $B$.

Example 7. If $\mathcal{U}={1,2,3,4,8,9}$ and $A={1,2,3,4}$, then $\bar{A}={8,9}$. If $B={1,3}$, then $\vec{B}={2,4,8,9}$. However, if $C={1,5}$, then $\bar{C}$ is undefined, since $C$ is not a subset of $\mathcal{U}$. To treat these cases, we introduce more set-theory operations. In what follows, all the sets are supposed to be subsets of the same universal set $\mathcal{U}$

Definition 12. Given two sets $A$ and $B$, the set-difference $A \backslash B$ is the set of all the elements of $A$ not belonging to $B$. Sometimes it is denoted as the regular difference of numbers, $A \backslash B=A-B$.

## 数学代写|离散数学作业代写discrete mathematics代考|GROUPS, RINGS, AND FIELDS

Up to now, we have used the commonly accepted current mathematical language, that is, the language of sets and maps, but without too much formalization. In this chapter, we consider certain structures, which Crypto appears in many problems. These structures sometimes look quite different but have very similar properties. Hence, this underlying formal structure deserves to be studied on its own. One does not have to repeat that study again and again, and it is enough to apply the general results in any particular application. As examples of structures, we consider the groups, rings, and fields. The reader will notice, of course, that at every step, we add one more operation to the previous structure. Thus, a field is a ring but not vice versa. Rings, in general, have no division; hence, they cannot be fields in general. A ring is a group, but not vice versa, etc.

Definition 14. An additive group is a set $G$, whose elements can be added; that is, for every element $a, b \in G$, their sum is defined, and is an element of the group, and is associative $(a+b)+c=a+(b+c)$. The group has the unique neutral element 0 and for any element $a \in G$, there exists the unique opposite element $-a \in G$, such that $a+(-a)=0$. If the group operation is commutative, $a+b=b+a$ if it is an additive group or $a \cdot b=b \cdot a$ if it is multiplicative, the group is called commutative or Abelian.

For example, the set of all integers is a commutative group with respect to the addition, and its neutral element is 0 . Moreover, with respect to the multiplication, it is a different group, and the neutral element now is 1 .

## 有限元方法代写

assignmentutor™作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师