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assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Role of the central bank

Picking up from the last point, let’s see how the actions of the Fed can constrain what each bank does. Since we have established that banks do not lend their deposits and that loans are simply electronic funds created with accounting entries, it is clear that banks do not lend their reserves to customers. However, they do lend reserves to one another. If a bank has excess reserves on hand, as in the previous example, it can put that money to work earning interest by lending its excess reserves to a bank that needs reserves to meet its $10 \%$ requirement. This is not actually a loan in the context of extending new credit to increase purchasing power, as with a loan made to a bank customer. It is simply shifting reserves that are not needed to another bank who needs them and charging that bank for the right to use them. It is similar to charging rent for the use of an asset. In this case, one bank is renting reserves from another.

Who controls all of this? Recall that reserves are made up of cash on hand (vault cash) and balances in reserve accounts at the central bank. It is the Fed that is charged with management of the overall reserve pool by way of the interbank market. If one bank has excess reserves and another needs to borrow to meets its reserve requirements, the net result is a shift from the reserve account at the Fed held by the former to the reserve account of the latter. Again, no physical dollars actually change hands. It simply comes down to journal entries.

Bear in mind that all of this is reflected on the central bank’s balance sheet where the deposit accounts are maintained. While each bank has its own balance sheet which shows its reserve account as a debit balance (because it is an asset of that bank), the central bank reflects the opposite side of each entry. Deposit accounts are liabilities of the entity holding the funds. If you have funds deposited at your bank, the bank owes that money to you when you ask for it. So, the reserves held on deposit at the Fed are liabilities of the central bank, because they are owed back to the individual banks who deposited them theree. This therefore describes the third restraint on money creation under the credit creation theory as listed in the prior section.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Lending is capital constrained

We have already detailed that lending is constrained by whether the loans that banks intend to make will be profitable. Additionally, a bank’s capital will curtail lending. Looking at a balance sheet, capital is the difference between total assets and liabilities. That is simple enough, but what does it mean? Think of a bank’s capital as a type of cushion. If the bank was liquidated and all liabilities were satisfied, the capital is the amount of assets that would remain. Since it represents the amount of the bank’s assets that would be there after liabilities were paid, it is the cushion available to protect it in the case of a decline in the value of the bank’s assets.

But how does the capital relate to lending? Remember the Tier I, Tier II, and Tier III ratios issued by the BIS? Basically, a measure of a bank’s capital relative to its outstanding loans, the capital ratio provides a risk-weighted measure that determines when a bank needs to slow down lending. Leverage ratios measure the bank’s capital against its un-weighted total assets.

Clearly, banks make profit when they make loans to customers. Since they do not have to have deposits to lend and they can find reserves to meet prescribed requirements, banks could loan as long as there was demand for borrowing. With demand being a function of the market, a healthy economy and competitive lending rate environment could allow a bank to easily find itself with an abundance of customer demand. As long as the spread between interest rates on new loans sufficiently exceeds the rate that a bank would pay to borrow any reserves it might need, the bank stands to profit. Since banks’ profits increase as their lending activities increase, it makes sense that they would lend every dollar possible.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师