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assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
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• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

Now that we have an idea of the environment that banks operate within, we can move on to discuss the role that banks play in the money supply chain.

The modern commercial banking system serves three primary functions. First, banks act as depositories, accepting deposits from customers for safekeeping and providing cash back to customers upon demand. This function dates back to a time when goldsmiths stored gold for customers. We no longer have a gold-based economy, but we still seek to deposit our money for safekeeping and, hopefully, to earn a bit of interest while it rests in our account at the bank. Further, by keeping our funds in a bank account, we are able to easily transact for goods and services by writing checks, swiping cards or entering payment information into our computers. Banks act as the clearinghouses for all of these financial transactions, settling funds between accounts. Second, and arguably most importantly, banks supply credit to customers, lending funds to those seeking to borrow, and then profiting from the be a matter of fact, basic service to customers. However, if we look a bit deeper, we come to realize that, by providing credit, commercial banks play a vital part in the creation and circulation of the money supply. In short, by creating credit, banks create spending power. And they do this with nothing more than accounting entries. While fairly simple, the concept is not widely understood, either in academia or by non-business individuals.

Third, banks help manage risk. If a layperson is in charge of making loans to potential start-up firms, they likely wouldn’t have much expertise on which businesses are promising and which are not. The risk that stems from investment opportunities that we do not know much about is referred to as the problem of asymmetric information in macroeconomics. Namely, a new start-up firm will know more about their business (and the inherent risks) than potential investors do. Asymmetric information manifests itself in two ways.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Two kinds of money

To understand how commercial banks create money, one must consider that there are actually two types of money. There is base money, which includes the physical currency that we are all familiar with, and bank reserves. To put some notation to this, the monetary base, $\mathrm{B}$, is equal to:
$$B=C+R,$$
where $\mathrm{C}$ is currency in circulation and $\mathrm{R}$ is bank reserves.
Base money makes up a relatively small percentage of the total money supply. If you picture it as a pie, the wedge that represents base money would be surprisingly narrow considering that the mental image that comes to most of our minds when we hear the term money probably is a green banknote with a president’s picture on it. This has been referred to as outside money, a term which is particularly applicable because of the fact that it is created under government authority (in the case of physical currency) or by the Federal Reserve (in the case of bank reserves), outside of the operation of the private sector.
The remainder, which is made up by what is referred to as bank money or inside money, termed as such because it is created inside the private sector, exists in the form of credit which is issued when banks make loans. Think about it as electronic funds; money that arises when an accounting entry is made to record a new loan. By issuing credit, a bank has given a customer new purchasing power. It is not cash and it does not increase the customer’s net worth (because he also has a new liability to the bank), but it does provide the customer with the ability to spend. And, in a nutshell, this is how banks create money.

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MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师