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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
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## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Consumer sovereignty

One of the main assumptions in a market economy is that consumers determine what is produced. Consumers will ultimately decide what goods and services will be produced by exercising their freedom to choose what they buy and which wants they will satisfy. Business firms will produce whatever goods and services are in demand. This concept is known as consumer sovereignty because consumers determine the answer to the questions of what to produce and how much should be produced. This is also one of the great strengths of the market economy because production is geared to what people want and their wants are satisfied.

Consumer sovereignty is based on consumers sending signals to producers through their demand for goods and services. Where their demand is high relative to supply, prices will rise. Producers will then notice that higher profits can be made by producing those items for which demand is greatest. As a result, they will shift resources into those other forms of production. Consumer sovereignty can therefore determine how resources are allocated in an economy.

Through the operation of consumer sovereignty, consumer income levels determine the types of production that occur in an economy. As an economy becomes more prosperous and income levels rise, demand for luxury goods increases, and so does their production. Thus, as an economy experiences an upturn and consumer incomes rise, the production of goods such as sports cars and designer clothing will increase. Similarly, production of these items will go down in an economic downturn.

However, consumer sovereignty is not absolute. In the twenty-first-century market economy, there are several aspects of business conduct that can reduce the sovereignty of consumers:

• Marketing: Advertising and direct marketing exert a powerful influence over the spending patterns of consumers. The importance of marketing to the functioning of market economies has grown substantially in recent years. While some marketing strategies are informative, most strategies place a strong emphasis on understanding their target consumer in order to manipulate their behaviour. Marketers conduct extensive research into the wants, interests, desires and fears of consumers, and they use this as the basis for both mass marketing (such as in the popular media) and direct marketing (such as targeted Facebook, Instagram, Google search and web browser advertising as well as more traditional email and direct mail approaches). Consumer sovereignty is diminished by manipulative or deceptive marketing practices.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Age

Age also plays a role in savings and consumption patterns. An individual’s income stream and propensity to consume and save are not constant throughout their life. According to the simple consumption theory, an individual or a household would consume a constant proportion of their income each period. This is clearly not the case. Individuals and households tend to smooth their consumption – if they expect to earn a very high level of income this period and very low or no income in the following period, they are likely to save up around half their income this period so as to have a reasonably constant standard of living in both periods.

Over the course of our lifetime, our consumption and savings behaviour moves through several patterns. When people are young, they tend to receive lower levels of income because they lack skills, experience and education. Therefore, they tend to spend most of their income and save very little – in fact they would often tend to dis-save (or borrow) in order to finance their education. However, once people start working, and especially in middle age, their incomes rise, and they would tend to consume a smaller proportion of their income, as they start saving and accumulating assets for retirement. In retirement, people no longer earn income from their labour, and they consume out of past savings and wealth, or rely on government pension benefits.

This way of looking at a household’s consumption behaviour can explain why individuals on higher incomes tend to have a lower average propensity to consume compared with lower-income earners. We can explain this by saying that individuals who are on higher incomes would tend to save more to pay past debts and accumulate assets for retirement, whereas low income earners must use a higher proportion of their income on the consumption of day to day necessities such as food and living expenses. Thus, as an individual grows older, their average propensity to consume initially falls (as their income rises) and then subsequently rises again after retirement.

This theory of consumption behaviour is often referred to as the life-cycle theory of consumption. Figure $4.3$ shows what an individual’s income, consumption and savings patterns would look like during their lifetime, according to this theory.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Consumer tastes and preferences

Another major influence on a consumer’s decision on how to spend their money is their tastes and preferences. An individual will decide to purchase those goods and services that give them the highest level of utility or personal satisfaction. Generally, we assume that a higher quantity of most goods increases consumer utility. However, some goods and services will give an individual consumer higher satisfaction than others. For example, a consumer who has a preference for fruit juice and who dislikes soft drinks will tend to spend more on juices and consume relatively fewer soft drinks.

Some goods may in fact subtract from consumer satisfaction. For example, if a consumer who dislikes classical music were to purchase a ticket to the symphony, this would reduce their utility (they gain no extra satisfaction for the ticket) and they will probably not value the purchase. Consumer tastes and preferences can be changed by experimentation and learning (a consumer who dislikes classical music may change their mind after seeing a movie that uses a Mozart symphony as its background music).

As consumer tastes and preferences change over time, so too will the demand for particular goods. For example, clothing that is coming into fashion will face an increase in demand, while consumer demand for clothing that is going out of fashion will decrease.
Innovation and technological progress lead to consumers demanding new and better products at the expense of superseded ones. For example, global sales of laptops and tablets were more than three times the sales of desktop computers in 2019. Australians now spend a much higher proportion of their income on communications than in the past, reflecting the explosive growth of mobile telephony, use of the internet and cheaper call costs. As of July 2018 , there were $14.7$ million internet subscribers in Australia, according to the ABS Internet Activity Survey. Ten years before, less than half that number of Australians were internet subscribers, reflecting the change in consumer behaviour in response to technological change.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。