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## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|A Mistake in Marx’s Determination of the Rate of Proft

But there is a mistake in Marx’s determination of $r$. If commodities exchange at ratios different from relative labour values, why should this not be the case also for the two different composite commodities, physical profits and physical advanced capital, whose rate of exchange is the rate of profit? So we must expect Marx’s formula $r=S /(C+V)$, with $S, C, V$ measured in labour values, to be in general incorrect.

And indeed it is in general incorrect. One can distinguish two reasons. The first is that, as Ricardo had noted and explicitly declared, the production conditions of luxury industries cannot have a role in the determination of the rate of profit; in Marx on the contrary they do, their organic composition contributes to determining the average organic composition of the social product. So in Marx a change in the dimension of luxury industries relative to the rest of the economy changes $\mathrm{C} / \mathrm{V}$ and hence $r$; this is wrong, as the ‘corn model’ makes clear, but Marx was never able to realize it. The second reason is that a change in the average organic composition can be due to changes in the relative dimensions of the wage industries too, and again this changes the rate of profit in Marx, but in fact in the correct equations determining the rate of profit and long-period prices the dimension of industries plays no role at all, only the technical coefficients and the wage count.

However, the modern advances in the theory of prices of production, exemplified by Eqs. (1.2)-(1.9), have shown that Marx was correct in this sense: the data-technical conditions of production, real wage basket and quantities produced if the no-rent land is to be determined too-from which he (and Ricardo) attempted to determine the rate of profit, are in fact sufficient directly to determine the rate of profit, with no need for labours embodied. This was shown precisely by those equations.

An important implication is the following. A number of marginalist authors (Böhm-Bawerk, Wicksteed, Pareto) argued that Marx’s entire approach was fatally flawed owing to the deficiencies of the labour theory of value as a theory of relative prices and of the rate of profit; a totally different theory of value and distribution was needed, they argued. But they were wrong. The surplus approach does not fall with the defects of the labour theory of value; it is capable of satisfactorily determining rate of profit and prices. Walras’s criticism of Ricardo (see above Sect. 1.6.1) was mistaken, because the indeterminateness at the level of a single price equation disappears once the real wage is given and the whole system of price equations is considered.

The irrefutable proof that Marx’s determination of the rate of profit is defective has caused disconcert among many Marxist economists, who have been further aggrieved by the proof that the correct determination of the rate of profit and prices of production has no need for embodied labour magnitudes (these do not appear in Eqs. (1.2)-(1.9)). According to the historically dominant tradition among Marxist thinkers, the notion that exchange value is ‘produced’ by labour, is nothing but crystallized labour time, was essential to Marx’s characterization of the capital-labour relation and to his argument that profits result from labour exploitation. But it can be convincingly argued that the replacement of Marx’s labour theory of value with the more correct approach exemplified by Eqs. (1.2)(1.9) denies nothing of Marx’s insights on the capital-labour relation and on the origin of profits.

The Marxist tradition has tended to attribute two main roles to the conception of exchange value as crystallized labour. The first one is to unmask the alienated and fetishistic aspect of social relations in market economies. 55 According to this tradition, that value is crystallized labour shows that the worker’s labour gets alienated from him/her: the worker’s labour is not controlled by the labourer but by the capitalist, so it is no longer an expression of his personality but rather serves interests external to the worker; its result, the value created by a certain amount of labour, is that amount of labour itself, now crystallized in the product of that labour: but now this value stands in front of the worker as alien thing, outside his control and endowed with a social recognition and power-the power to exchange with other things, and to command more labour than it was necessary to produce it-whose social origin becomes almost impossible to grasp, because resulting from nobody’s conscious action; one result is that commodities fetishistically appear to possess as natural qualities what in fact derives from the social structure, e.g. gold appears as naturally endowed with great exchange value, rather than deriving it from the economy’s need for money, which depends on how the social division of labour is organized: via private property and exchange. The labour theory of value is seen as allowing one to go beyond appearances and bringing out the subjugated, oppressed, alienated nature of the condition of the true producers under capitalism while at the same time explaining why it is difficult spontaneously to grasp it.

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
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