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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|Equilibrium and Gravitation

The marginal approach argues that in a market economy prices, quantities produced, and the distribution of the social product between wages, rents, interest ${ }^{1}$ are determined by the interaction between supply and demand, which are functions of prices; this interaction – it is argued – causes the economy to gravitate toward a state of equality, or of equilibrium, between supply and demand for all goods and all [services of] productive factors. ${ }^{2}$

Equality between supply and demand in the market of a good or service is described as an equilibrium because demand (the presence of people who want to buy the good) is seen as a force tending to raise the price, supply (people trying to sell the good) as a force tending to reduce the price; when they are equal the two forces neutralize each other, and the price is therefore in equilibrium.

A physical analogy is a heavy object hanging by an elastic string: the weight of the object pushes it downwards, but the lower the object, the greater the upward pull exercised by the string, so the object, if disturbed, oscillates up and down until it comes to rest in a position where the downward and the upward pull are in equilibrium. In this case the physical system returns to the equilibrium when its state is perturbed, and the equilibrium is called stable. If the elastic string is attached to the branch of a tree, then wind causes the object to oscillate; the equilibrium indicates the average position of the object, in the proximity of which we can expect the object to be most of the time. The usefulness of the notion of equilibrium between supply and demand is similar, it indicates the average around which the day-by-day price and quantity gravitate-of course assuming the equilibrium is stable.

## 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|Production Functions, Isoquants and Marginal Products

The marginal approach calls ‘factors of production’ the production inputs: labour, land, capital. It argues that for these too, as for produced goods, there are supply functions and demand functions and a tendency toward an equilibrium between supply and demand.

Assume an economy where a single consumption good, corn, is produced by employing homogeneous labour and homogeneous land as factors of production. (The need for seed is neglected for the time being.) Free competition tends to establish the same price for all units of the same good or service; corn is the good in which relative prices are expressed, i.e. is the numéraire (modern term for the classical ‘measure of value’ or ‘standard of value’); hence the price of a unit of corn is 1, and there are only two prices to be determined: the real rate of wages $w$ (yearly corn wage per unit of labour time), and the real rate of rent $\beta$ (yearly corn rent per unit of land). ${ }^{4}$ The production of corn can be carried out according to a continuum of different methods, which can be represented via a continuously differentiable production function $q=f(L, T)$, which indicates the maximum quantity of corn producible in a year with the utilization of amounts $L$ and $T$ of [services of] labour and land. ${ }^{5}$ Assume goods and input services are perfectly divisible; also assume the production function is characterized by constant returns to scale, CRS for short, defined as ‘an increase of all inputs by the same percentage causes an increase of output by the same percentage’, which means $f(c L, c T)=c f(L, T)$ for any real positive scalar $c$. Let us assume that if both inputs are positive then output is positive; then CRS implies that output can be increased indefinitely if inputs are sufficiently increased.

Let us grasp the connection between a production function and the representation of production methods through technical coefficients used in – Chaps. 1 and 2. Suppose we fix the quantity to be produced at 1 unit. Each vector $(L, T)$ such that $q=f(L, T)=1$ is a vector of technical coefficients representing a production method of the corn industry according to the definition of Chap. 1 ; that is, if $a_{L}, a_{T}$ are the technical coefficients of a production method for the production of corn as defined in Chap. 1 , then $f\left(a_{L}, a_{T}\right)=1$. If $q=f(L, T)$ is different from 1 , then by dividing $L$ and $T$ by $q$ we obtain quantities of labour and of land that produce 1 unit of corn and therefore are technical coefficients of a production method. The differentiability assumption means there is a continuum of alternative production methods.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师