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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|贝叶斯网络代写Bayesian network代考|Description of Subsea BOP Stack

BOPs come in two basic types, ram and annular. Both are often used together in drilling rig BOP stacks, typically with at least one annular BOP along with several ram BOPs. An annular-type BOP can close around the drill string or casing. Drill pipe including the larger-diameter tool joints (threaded connectors) can be “stripped” (i.e., moved vertically while pressure is contained below) through an annular preventer by careful control of the hydraulic closing pressure. Annular BOPs are also effective at maintaining a seal around the drill pipe even as it rotates during drilling. Regulations typically require that an annular preventer be able to completely close a wellbore, but annular preventers are generally not as effective as ram preventers in maintaining a seal on an open hole. Annular BOPs are typically located at the top of a BOP stack, with one or two annular preventers positioned above a series of several ram preventers. A ram-type BOP is similar in operation to a gate valve, but uses a pair of opposing steel plungers, rams. The rams extend toward the center of the wellbore to restrict flow or retract open in order to permit flow. The inner and top faces of the rams are fitted with packers that press against each other, against the wellbore, and around tubing running through the wellbore. Outlets at the sides of the BOP housing are used for connection to choke and kill lines or valves. Rams are of four common types: pipe, blind, shear, and blind shear. Pipe rams close around a drill pipe, restricting flow in the annulus (ring-shaped space between concentric objects) between the outside of the drill pipe and the wellbore, but do not obstruct flow within the drill pipe. Variable-bore pipe rams can accommodate tubing in a wider range of outside diameters than standard pipe rams, but typically with some loss of pressure capacity and longevity. Blind rams (also known as sealing rams), which have no openings for tubing, can close off the well when the well does not contain a drill string or other tubing, and seal it. Shear rams cut through the drill string or casing with hardened steel shears. Blind shear rams (also known as shear seal rams or sealing shear rams) are intended to seal a wellbore, even when the bore is occupied by a drill string, by cutting through the drill string as the rams close off the well. The upper portion of the severed drill string is freed from the ram, while the lower portion may he crimped and the “fish tail” captured to hang the drill string off the BOP. Two hydraulic connectors are used to connect the BOP stack with the lower marine riser package (LMRP) and wellhead. LMRP connector joins the LMRP to the top of the lower BOP stack, while wellhead connector joins the stack to the subsea wellhead.

## 统计代写|贝叶斯网络代写Bayesian network代考|Dynamic Bayesian Network

BNs are probabilistic models based on directed acyclic graphs which are used for representing and reasoning with uncertain knowledge [21]. A BN is made up of a set of nodes representing the system variables and directed arcs representing the dependencies or influence among the variables. In BNs, a variable is defined over several mutually exclusive states and a probability is associated to each state. The probabilistic dependences are quantified by a conditional probability table for each node [22]. Each conditional probability table contains the probability of a node, given any possible combination of its parent nodes. Without parent nodes, root nodes only have priori probabilities. The nodes $\left(X_{1}, \ldots, X_{N}\right)$ in the network are labeled by related random variables. Assuming $\operatorname{Pa}\left(X_{i}\right)$ is the parent node of $X_{i}$ in the model, the conditional probability distribution of $X_{i}$ is denoted by $P\left(X_{i} \mid \mathrm{Pa}\left(X_{i}\right)\right)$. The joint probability distribution $P\left(X_{1}, \ldots, X_{N}\right)$ can be written as Eq. (1).
$$P\left(X_{1}, \ldots, X_{N}\right)=\prod_{X i \in\left{X_{1}, \ldots, X_{N}\right}} P\left(X_{i} \mid \mathrm{Pa}\left(X_{i}\right)\right)$$
BN allows both forward (or predictive) analysis and backward (diagnostic) analysis, where the posterior probability of any set of variables can be calculated.

A DBN extends the static BN by introducing temporal dependencies that describe the dynamic behaviors. DBNs comprise a sequence of time slices, and each slice consists of a static BN describing the system in the corresponding time step. Temporal links between variables in different time slices denote a temporal probabilistic dependence between the variables. A DBN is defined as a pair $\left(B_{1}, B_{\rightarrow}\right)$, where $B_{1}$ is a BN that defines the prior $P\left(X_{t}\right)$, and $B_{\rightarrow}$ represents the transition probability $P\left(X_{t} \mid X_{t-1}\right)$ as a two-slice temporal BN, which is shown in Eq. (2).

# 贝叶斯网络代考

## 统计代写|贝叶斯网络代写Bayesian network代考|Description of Subsea BOP Stack

BOP 有两种基本类型，柱塞式和环形。两者通常在钻机防喷器组中一起使用，通常与至少一个环形防喷器和几个闸板防喷器一起使用。环形防喷器可以封闭在钻柱或套管周围。通过仔细控制液压关闭压力，可以通过环形防喷器“剥离”包括大直径工具接头（螺纹连接器）的钻杆（即，垂直移动，同时压力包含在下方）。环形防喷器也能有效地保持钻杆周围的密封，即使它在钻井过程中旋转。法规通常要求环形防喷器能够完全关闭井筒，但在保持对裸眼井的密封方面，环形防喷器通常不如闸板防喷器有效。环形防喷器通常位于防喷器堆栈的顶部，一个或两个环形防喷器位于一系列数个闸板防喷器上方。闸板式防喷器的操作类似于闸阀，但使用一对相对的钢柱塞，闸板。柱塞向井筒中心延伸以限制流动或缩回开放以允许流动。柱塞的内表面和顶面装有封隔器，这些封隔器相互压靠，压在井筒上，并围绕穿过井筒的油管。BOP 外壳侧面的出口用于连接节流和压井管线或阀门。闸板有四种常见类型：管式、盲板、剪切和盲剪。管柱塞围绕钻杆关闭，限制钻杆外部和井筒之间的环形空间（同心物体之间的环形空间）中的流动，但不阻碍钻杆内的流动。与标准管式闸板相比，可变口径管式闸板可以适应更广泛外径范围的油管，但通常会损失一些压力容量和使用寿命。没有油管开口的盲闸板（也称为密封闸板）可以在井不包含钻柱或其他油管时将井封闭，并将其密封。剪切闸板用硬化钢剪穿过钻柱或套管。盲剪切闸板（也称为剪切密封闸板或密封剪切闸板）旨在通过在闸板关闭井时切穿钻柱来密封井眼，即使在钻孔被钻柱占据时也是如此。被切断的钻柱的上部从柱塞上释放出来，而下部可以被卷曲并捕获“鱼尾”以将钻柱从防喷器上悬挂下来。两个液压连接器用于将防喷器组与下部海洋立管组件 (LMRP) 和井口连接起来。LMRP 连接器将 LMRP 连接到下 BOP 组的顶部，而井口连接器将组连接到海底井口。

## 统计代写|贝叶斯网络代写Bayesian network代考|Dynamic Bayesian Network

BN 是基于有向无环图的概率模型，用于表示和推理不确定的知识 [21]。BN 由一组表示系统变量的节点和表示变量之间的依赖关系或影响的有向弧组成。在 BN 中， 一个变量定义在几个相互排斥的状态上，并且概率与每个状态相关联。概率依赖性由每个节点的条件概率表量化[22]。每个条件概率表包含一个节点的概率，给定其 父节点的任何可能组合。没有父节点，根节点只有先验概率。节点 $\left(X_{1}, \ldots, X_{N}\right)$ 在网络中由相关的随机变量标记。假设 $\mathrm{Pa}\left(X_{i}\right)$ 是的父节点 $X_{i}$ 在模型中，条件概率分 布 $X_{i}$ 表示为 $P\left(X_{i} \mid \mathrm{Pa}\left(X_{i}\right)\right)$. 联合概率分布 $P\left(X_{1}, \ldots, X_{N}\right)$ 可以写成方程。(1)。
\left 的分隔符缺失或无法识别
BN 允许前向 (或预测) 分析和后向 (诊断) 分析，其中可以计算任何一组变量的后验概率。
DBN 通过引入描述动态行为的时间依赖性来扩展静态 BN。DBN 由一系列时间片组成，每个片由一个静态 BN 组成，在相应的时间步长中描述系统。不同时间片中变 量之间的时间链接表示变量之间的时间概率相关性。一个 $\mathrm{DBN}$ 被定义为一对 $\left(B_{1}, B_{\rightarrow}\right)$ ，在哪里 $B_{1}$ 是定义先验的 $\mathrm{BN} P\left(X_{t}\right)$ ，和 $B_{\rightarrow}$ 表示转移概率 $P\left(X_{t} \mid X_{t-1}\right)$ 作 为两片时间 $\mathrm{BN}$ ，如方程式所示。(2)。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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