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assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写计算机网络computer networking方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写计算机网络computer networking代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写计算机网络computer networking相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|计算机网络代写computer networking代考|Throughput in Computer Networks

In addition to delay and packet loss, another critical performance measure in computer networks is end-to-end throughput. To define throughput, consider transferring a large file from Host A to Host B across a computer network. This transfer might be, for example, a large video clip from one computer to another. The instantaneous throughput at any instant of time is the rate (in bits/sec) at which Host B is receiving the file. (Many applications display the instantaneous throughput during downloads in the user interface-perhaps you have observed this before! You might like to try measuring the end-to-end delay and download throughput between your and servers around the Internet using the speedtest application [Speedtest 2020].) If the file consists of $F$ bits and the transfer takes $T$ seconds for Host B to receive all $F$ bits, then the average throughput of the file transfer is $F / T$ bits/sec. For some applications, such as Internet telephony, it is desirable to have a low delay and an instantaneous throughput consistently above some threshold (for example, over 24 kbps for some Internet telephony applications and over $256 \mathrm{kbps}$ for some real-time video applications). For other applications, including those involving file transfers, delay is not critical, but it is desirable to have the highest possible throughput.

To gain further insight into the important concept of throughput, let’s consider a few examples. Figure 1.19(a) shows two end systems, a server and a client, connected by two communication links and a router. Consider the throughput for a file transfer from the server to the client. Let $R_s$ denote the rate of the link between the server and the router; and $R_c$ denote the rate of the link between the router and the client. Suppose that the only bits being sent in the entire network are those from the server to the client. We now ask, in this ideal scenario, what is the serverto-client throughput? To answer this question, we may think of bits as fluid and communication links as pipes. Clearly, the server cannot pump bits through its link at a rate faster than $R_s$ bps; and the router cannot forward bits at a rate faster than $R_c$ bps. If $R_s<R_c$, then the bits pumped by the server will “flow” right through the router and arrive at the client at a rate of $R_s$ bps, giving a throughput of $R_s$ bps. If, on the other hand, $R_c<R_s$, then the router will not be able to forward bits as quickly as it receives them. In this case, bits will only leave the router at rate $R_c$, giving an endto-end throughput of $R_c$. (Note also that if bits continue to arrive at the router at rate $R_s$, and continue to leave the router at $R_c$, the backlog of bits at the router waiting for transmission to the client will grow and grow-a most undesirable situation!)

## 计算机代写|计算机网络代写computer networking代考|Layered Architecture

Before attempting to organize our thoughts on Internet architecture, let’s look for a human analogy. Actually, we deal with complex systems all the time in our everyday life. Imagine if someone asked you to describe, for example, the airline system. How would you find the structure to describe this complex system that has ticketing agents, baggage checkers, gate personnel, pilots, airplanes, air traffic control, and a worldwide system for routing airplanes? One way to describe this system might be to describe the series of actions you take (or others take for you) when you fly on an airline. You purchase your ticket, check your bags, go to the gate, and eventually get loaded onto the plane. The plane takes off and is routed to its destination. After your plane lands, you deplane at the gate and claim your bags. If the trip was bad, you complain about the flight to the ticket agent (getting nothing for your effort). This scenario is shown in Figure $1.21$.

Already, we can see some analogies here with computer networking: You are being shipped from source to destination by the airline; a packet is shipped from source host to destination host in the Internet. But this is not quite the analogy we are after. We are looking for some structure in Figure 1.21. Looking at Figure 1.21, we note that there is a ticketing function at each end; there is also a baggage function for already-ticketed passengers, and a gate function for already-ticketed and already-baggage-checked passengers. For passengers who have made it through the gate (that is, passengers who are already ticketed, baggage-checked, and through the gate), there is a takeoff and landing function, and while in flight, there is an airplanerouting function. This suggests that we can look at the functionality in Figure $1.21$ in a horizontal manner, as shown in Figure 1.22.

Figure $1.22$ has divided the airline functionality into layers, providing a framework in which we can discuss airline travel. Note that each layer, combined with the layers below it, implements some functionality, some service. At the ticketing layer and below, airline-counter-to-airline-counter transfer of a person is accomplished. At the baggage layer and below, baggage-check-to-baggage-claim transfer of a person and bags is accomplished. Note that the baggage layer provides this service only to an already-ticketed person. At the gate layer, departure-gate-to-arrival-gate transfer of a person and bags is accomplished. At the takeoff/landing layer, runway-to-runway transfer of people and their bags is accomplished. Each layer provides its service by (1) performing certain actions within that layer (for example, at the gate layer, loading and unloading people from an airplane) and by (2) using the services of the layer directly below it (for example, in the gate layer, using the runway-to-runway passenger transfer service of the takeoff/landing layer).

# 计算机网络代考

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## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师