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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

In electromagnetic theory, radiation is described as oscillating electric and magnetic fields, denoted by the electric field strength $\boldsymbol{E}$ and the magnetic field strength $B$, respectively. Both vector fields are given by the solution of a set of differential equations, referred to as Maxwell’s equations.

In free space, that is, without electric sources and currents, a special solution is a harmonic planar wave, propagating linearly in space and time. As Maxwell’s equations are linear equations, the superposition of two solutions also yields a solution. This fact is commonly referred to as the superposition principle. The superposition principle allows us to explain the phenomenon of polarization, another important property of electromagnetic radiation. In general, the 3 -D orientation of vector $E$ changes over time and mixtures of electromagnetic waves show randomly distributed orientation directions of $\boldsymbol{E}$. If, however, the electromagnetic field vector $\boldsymbol{E}$ is confined to a plane, the radiation is called linearly polarized (Fig. 2.2a).

If two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves are traveling in the same direction, the resulting electric field vector is given by $\boldsymbol{E}=\boldsymbol{E}{1}+\boldsymbol{E}{2}$. Depending on the phase shift $\Phi$ in the oscillations of $\boldsymbol{E}{1}$ and $\boldsymbol{E}{2}$, the net electric field vector $\boldsymbol{E}$ remains linearly polarized $(\Phi=0)$, or rotates around the propagation direction of the wave. For a phase shift of $\Phi=90^{\circ}$, the wave is called circularly polarized (Fig. 2.2b). The general case consists of elliptical polarization, that is, mixtures between both cases.

Due to polarization, radiation exhibits different properties in different directions, such as, for example, directional reflectivity or polarization dependent transmissivity.

Mixtures of electromagnetic waves, which are emitted from conventional light sources, do not show any spatial and temporal relation. The phasse shifts bétween thé éléctric field vectors $E$ and thee correespononding orientations are randomly distributed. Such radiation is called incoher ent.

Spécial typés of light sources, mainly those operating by stimulated emission of radiation (e. g., lasers), emit radiation with a fixed systematic relationship between the phases of the electromagnetic field vectors, a property called coherence. Such radiation can be subject to constructive and destructive interference if it is superposed. As the electric field vectors can add up to high amplitudes, the local energy impact of coherent radiation is much more severe and can cause damage to delicate body tissue.

# 计算机视觉代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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