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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Definition of radiometric quantities

Radiant energy and radiant flux. Radiation carries energy that can be absorbed in matter heating up the absorber or interacting with electrical charges. Radiant energy $Q$ is measured in units of Joule $(1 \mathrm{~J}=1 \mathrm{Ws})$. It quantifies the total energy emitted by a source or received by a detector.
Radiant flux $\Phi$ is defined as radiant energy per unit time interval
$$\Phi=\frac{\mathrm{d} Q}{\mathrm{~d} t}$$
passing through or emitted from a surface. Radiant flux has the unit watts (W) and is also frequently called radiant power, which corresponds to its physical unit. Quantities describing the spatial and geometric distributions of radiative flux are introduced in the following sections.

The units for radiative energy, radiative flux, and all derived quantities listed in Table $2.1$ are based on Joule as the fundamental unit. Instead of these energy-derived quantities an analogous set of photonderived quantities can be defined based on the number of photons. Photon-derived quantities are denoted by the subscript $p$, while the energy-based quantities are written with a subscript $e$ if necessary to distinguish between them. Without a subscript, all radiometric quantities are considered energy-derived. Given the radiant energy the number of photons can be computed from Eq. (2.2)
$$N_{p}=\frac{Q_{e}}{e_{p}}=\frac{\lambda}{h c} Q_{e}$$
With photon-based quantities the number of photons replaces the radiative energy. The set of photon-related quantities is useful if radiation is measured by detectors that correspond linearly to the number of absorbed photons (photon detectors) rather than to thermal energy stored in the detector material (thermal detector).

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Relationship of radiometric quantities

Spatial distribution of exitance and irradiance. Solving Eq. (2.12) for $\mathrm{d} \Phi / \mathrm{d} S$ yields the fraction of exitance radiated under the specified direction into the solid angle $d \Omega$
$$\mathrm{d} M(\boldsymbol{x})=\mathrm{d}\left(\frac{\mathrm{d} \Phi}{\mathrm{d} S}\right)=L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} \Omega$$
Given the radiance $L$ of an emitting surface, the radiant exitance $M$ can be derived by integrating over all solid angles of the hemispheric enclosure $\mathcal{H}$ :
$$M(\boldsymbol{x})=\int_{\mathcal{H}} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} \Omega=\int_{0}^{2 \pi \pi / 2} \int_{0} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \sin \theta \mathrm{d} \theta \mathrm{d} \phi$$
In order to carry out the angular integration spherical coordinates have been used (Fig. 2.7), replacing the differential solid angle element $\mathrm{d} \Omega$ by thẻ twô planẻ anglé éléments $d \theta$ and d$\psi$ :
$$\mathrm{d} \Omega=\sin \theta \mathrm{d} \theta \mathrm{d} \phi$$
Correspondingly, the irradiance $E$ of a surface $S$ can be derived from a given radiance by integrating over all solid angles of incident radiation:
$$E(\boldsymbol{x})=\int_{\mathcal{H}} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} \Omega=\int_{0}^{2 \pi \pi / 2} \int_{0}^{\pi} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \sin \theta \mathrm{d} \theta \mathrm{d} \phi(2.16)$$
Angular distribution of intensity. Solving Eq. (2.12) for $\mathrm{d} \Phi / \mathrm{d} \Omega$ yields the fraction of intensity emitted from an infinitesimal surface element $\mathrm{d} S$
$$\mathrm{d} I=\mathrm{d}\left(\frac{\mathrm{d} \Phi}{\mathrm{d} \Omega}\right)=L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} S$$
Extending the point source concept of radiant intensity to extended sources, the intensity of a surface of finite area can be derived by integrating the radiance over the emitting surface area $S$ :
$$I(\theta, \phi)=\int_{S} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} S$$

# 计算机视觉代考

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Definition of radiometric quantities

$$\Phi=\frac{\mathrm{d} Q}{\mathrm{~d} t}$$

$$N_{p}=\frac{Q_{e}}{e_{p}}=\frac{\lambda}{h c} Q_{e}$$

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Relationship of radiometric quantities

$$\mathrm{d} M(\boldsymbol{x})=\mathrm{d}\left(\frac{\mathrm{d} \Phi}{\mathrm{d} S}\right)=L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} \Omega$$

$$M(\boldsymbol{x})=\int_{\mathcal{H}} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} \Omega=\int_{0}^{2 \pi \pi / 2} \int_{0} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \sin \theta \mathrm{d} \theta \mathrm{d} \phi$$

$$\mathrm{d} \Omega=\sin \theta \mathrm{d} \theta \mathrm{d} \phi$$

$$E(\boldsymbol{x})=\int_{\mathcal{H}} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} \Omega=\int_{0}^{2 \pi \pi / 2} \int_{0}^{\pi} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \sin \theta \mathrm{d} \theta \mathrm{d} \phi(2.16)$$

$$\mathrm{d} I=\mathrm{d}\left(\frac{\mathrm{d} \Phi}{\mathrm{d} \Omega}\right)=L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} S$$

$$I(\theta, \phi)=\int_{S} L(\boldsymbol{x}, \theta, \phi) \cos \theta \mathrm{d} S$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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