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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Solid angle

In order to quantify the geometric spreading of radiation leaving a source, it is useful to recall the definition of solid angle. It extends the concept of plane angle into 3-D space. A plane angle $\theta$ is defined as the ratio of the arc length $s$ on a circle to the radius $r$ centered at the point of definition:
$$\theta=\frac{s}{r}$$
The arc length $s$ can be considered as projection of an arbitrary line in the plane onto the circle (Fig. 2.3). Plane angles are measured in rad (radians). A plane angle $\theta$ quantifies the angular subtense of a line segment in the plane viewed from the point of definition. A circle has a circumference of $2 \pi r$ and, therefore, subtends a plane angle of $2 \pi$ rad.
A solid angle $\Omega$ is similarly defined as the ratio of an area $A$ on the surface of a sphere to the square radius, as shown in Fig. 2.4:
$$\Omega=\frac{A}{r^{2}}$$
The area segment $A$ can be considered as the projection of an arbitrarily shaped area in 3-D space onto the surface of a sphere. Solid angles are measured in sr (steradian). They quantify the areal subtense of a 2-D surface area in 3-D space viewed from the point of definition. A sphere subtends a surface area of $4 \pi r^{2}$, which corresponds to a solid angle of $4 \pi$ sr. Given a surface area $A$ that is tilted under some angle $\theta$ between the surface normal and the line of sight the solid angle is reduced by a factor of $\cos \theta$ :
$$\Omega=\frac{A}{r^{2}} \cos \theta$$

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Conventions and overview

Measurements of radiometric and photometric quantities very often are subject to confusion related to terminology and units. Due to diverse historical developments and often inaccurate usage of names, radiometry is one of the least understood subjects in the field of op-tics. However, it is not very difficult if some care is taken with regard to definitions of quantities related to angles and areas.

Despite confusion in the literature, there seems to be a trend towards standardization of units. (In pursuit of standardization we will use only SI units, in agreement with the International Commission on Illumination CIE. The CIE is the international authority defining terminology, standards, and basic concepts in radiometry and photometry. The radiometric and photometric terms and definitions are in compliance with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) report RP-16, published in 1986. Further information on standards can be found at the web sites of CIE (http://www . cie. co. at/cie/) and ANSI (http://www. ansi . org), respectively.)

In this section, the fundamental quantities of radiometry will be defined. The transition to photometric quantities will be introduced by a generic Equation (2.27), which can be used to convert each of these radiometric quantities to its corresponding photometric counterpart.
We will start from the concept of radiative flux and derive the most important quantities necessary to define the geometric distribution of radiation emitted from or irradiated on surfaces. The six fundamental concepts relating the spatial distribution of energy in electromagnetic radiation are summarized in Table 2.1. The term “radiant” is only added to the names of those quantities that could be confused with the corresponding photometric quantity (see Table 2.2).

# 计算机视觉代考

## 电子工程代写|计算机视觉代写Computer Vision代考|Solid angle

$$\theta=\frac{s}{r}$$

$$\Omega=\frac{A}{r^{2}}$$

$$\Omega=\frac{A}{r^{2}} \cos \theta$$

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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