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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 金融代写|衍生品代写Derivatives代考|SWAPS

In a swap transaction two parties agree to exchange cash flows, whose size are based on different price indices. Typically, this is represented as an agreed fixed rate against a variable or floating rate. Swaps are traded on an agreed notional amount, which is not exchanged but establishes the magnitude of the fixed and floating cash flows. Swap contracts are typically of longer-term maturity (i.e. greater than one year) but the exact terms of the contract will be open to negotiation. For example, in many base metal markets a swap transaction is often nothing more than a single period forward. This is because the forward transaction may be cash settled which would involve the payment of the agreed forward price against the spot price at expiry.

The exact form may vary between markets, with the following merely a sample of how they may be applied in a variety of different commodity markets.

• Gold – Pay fixed lease rate vs. receive variable lease rate
• Base metals – pay fixed aluminium price vs. receive average price of near dated aluminium future
• Oil – pay fixed West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price vs. receive average price of near dated WTI future

Swaps will usually be spot starting and so become effective two days after they are traded. However, it is also possible for the swap to become effective sometime in the future – a forward starting swap. The frequency with which the cash flows are settled is open to negotiation but they could vary in tenor between 1-12 months. Where the payments coincide, there is a net settlement between the two parties. One of the features of commodity swaps not shared by financial swaps is the use of an average rate for the floating leg. This is because many of the underlying exposures that commodity swaps are designed to hedge will be based on some form of average price.

The motivation for entering a swap will differ between counterparties. For a corporate entity one of their main concerns is risk transference. Take a company that purchases a particular commodity at the market price at regular periods in the future. To offset the risk that the underlying price may increase, they would receive a cash flow under the swap based on movements in the market price of the commodity and pay a fixed rate. If the counterparty to the transaction were an investment bank, the latter would now have the original exposure faced by the corporate. The investment bank would be receiving fixed and paying a variable rate, leaving them exposed to a rise in the price of the underlying commodity. In turn, the investment bank will attempt to mitigate this exposure by entering some form of offsetting transaction. The simplest form of this offsetting deal would be an equal and opposite swap transaction. To ensure that the bank makes some money from this second transaction, the amount they receive from the corporate should offset the amount paid to the offsetting swap counterparty.

## 金融代写|衍生品代写Derivatives代考|OPTIONS

A forward contract offers price certainty to both counterparties. However, the buyer of a forward is locked into paying a fixed price for a particular commodity. This transaction will be valuable if the price of the commodity subsequently rises, but will be unprofitable in the event of a fall in price. An option contract offers the best of both worlds. It will offer the buyer of the contract protection if the price of the underlying moves against them, but allows them to walk away from the deal if the underlying price moves in their favour.

This leads to the definition of an option as the right, but not the obligation, to either buy or sell an underlying commodity sometime in the future at a price agreed upon today. An option that allows the holder to buy the underlying asset is referred to as a call. Having the right to sell something is referred to as a put. The price at which the two parties will trade if the option is exercised is referred to as either the strike price or the exercise price. The strike can be set at any level and is negotiated between the option buyer and seller.

Options may be either physically settled (that is, the commodity is delivered/ received) or cash settled. The process of cash settlement removes the need to make or take delivery of the underlying asset, but retains the economics of a physically settled option. Cash settlement involves the seller paying the buyer the difference between the strike and the spot price at the point of exercise. The payoff for a cash-settled call option is:
MAX (underlying price – strike price, 0 )

Where: MAX means ‘the maximum of’
The payoff for a cash-settled put option is:
MAX (strike price – underlying price, 0 )

# 衍生品代考

## 金融代写|衍生品代写Derivatives代考|SWAPS

• 黄金 – 支付固定租赁费率与接收可变租赁费率
• 基本金属——支付固定铝价与收到近期铝期货的平均价格
• 石油 – 支付固定的西德克萨斯中质原油 (WTI) 价格与接收近期 WTI 期货的平均价格

## 金融代写|衍生品代写Derivatives代考|OPTIONS

MAX（基础价格 – 执行价格，0）

MAX（执行价格 – 标的价格，0）

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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