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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

金融代写|金融数学代写Financial Mathematics代考|The Time Value of Money and Interest Rates

The value of a financial product is a subjective measure of worth which could be derived from mathematical models. The price of a financial product is based on observations of bids, offerings, and/or transactions in financial markets. Technically speaking, they are different. A market price is based on supply and demand, and may differ markedly from opinions with regard to value. However, in equilibrium, market prices should converge to widely accepted opinions with regard to value. Because most financial derivatives trade in well-functioning markets and are valued using widely accepted derivative pricing models, there is less need to distinguish carefully between the terms value, price, market value, and fair value. For example, scholars often describe derivative valuation models as pricing models. Because of this, we may at times use the terms interchangeably.

Most modern money has no value other than what people will accept in exchange for it. The value of money changes through time due to changes in its supply and demand. The value of a dollar today is obviously $\$ 1$. But what about the value today of a dollar that won’t be received for 5,10 , or 20 years how much is it worth? The time value of money refers to the idea that the exchange ratio between the values of money to be received at different points in time is usually not exactly one. Money that won’t be recceived for very long periods of time is typically only worth a few cents on each dollar. Note that a perpetuity – a promise of periodic payments forever – is worth a finite amount even though the sum of the promised cash flows is infinite. Money such as U.S. dollars at different points in time should be viewed as different commodities (e.g., apples vs. oranges) rather than as the same asset. Just like in the case of apples vs. oranges, decisions about money at different points in time are based on the ratios of their market prices. The price ratios of money at different points in time are expressed using interest rates. Thus, if$\$1$ due in one year is worth only $\$ 0.80$today (i.e., its present value is$\$0.80$ ), the one-year interest rate would be $25 \%$ because $\$ 0.80$grows to$\$1.00$ with an annual growth rate of $25 \%$. In this case, the time value discount factor would be $0.80$. Time value discount factors can be used to find the present value of a future cash flow by multiplying the future cash
Note that interest rates and discount factors are equivalent metrics for Note that interest rates and discount factors are equivalent metrics for derive the corresponding interest rate and vice versa.

有限元方法代写

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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