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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
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## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Financial Ratio Analysis

To help them analyze balance sheets and income statements, financial managers construct various financial ratios. There are five basic types of these ratios: leverage ratios, activity ratios, liquidity ratios, profitability ratios, and market value ratios.

Let us use Merck (MRK) and Johnson \& Johnson data to calculate a number of these ratios and discuss their significance.

Table $2.7$ shows how financial ratios are derived from the 2009 balance sheet and income statement. The information for the current ratio comes from the assets side of the balance sheet. The ratio for $\mathrm{JNJ}$ is $1.82$, which means that 1 dollar in current liabilities is matched by $1.82$ dollars in current assets. To calculate the inventory turnover ratio, we use cost of goods sold from the income statement and inventories from the current assets in the balance sheet. The resulting ratio (3.561) reveals how often the average value of goods in inventory was sold in 2009 .

The total debt to total assets ratio is derived from the balance sheet; it indicates that about $45.1 \%$ of JNJ’s assets are financed by debt. Data to calculate the net profit margin come from the income statement. JNJ’s profit margin is .198, that is, about 20 cents out of every dollar of sales is profit (net income). ROI (return on investment) is more accurately described as return on total assets; it is calculated from information in both the income statement and the balance sheet. The resulting figure for JNJ is $12.9 \%$.

The price/earnings (P/E) ratio is calculated by taking the price per share divided by the earnings per share (EPS). Although the price per share does not appear in the balance sheet or the income statement, it can be found in stock reports in newspapers. The EPS is then found by dividing net income by the number of common shares. (The ratio cannot be calculated if the firm experienced losses.) The $\mathrm{P} / \mathrm{E}$ ratio for JNJ is $14.474$.

Finally, the payout ratio is calculated by dividing the price of the stock by the dividends per share (DPS). DPS is the value of dividends paid out divided by the number of shares of common stock. This ratio reveals that $\mathrm{JNJ}$ paid out about $0.434 \%$ of its earnings in dividends.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Tally Table for Constructing a Frequency Table

Before conducting any statistical analysis, we must organize our data sets. One way to organize data is by using a tally table as a worksheet for setting up a frequency table. To set up a tally table for a set of data, we split the data into equal-sized classes in such a way that each observation fits into one and only one class of numbers (i.e., the classes are mutually exclusive). Sometimes data are reported in a frequency table with class intervals given but with actual values of observations in the classes unknown; data presented in this manner are called grouped data. The analyst assigns each data point to a class and enters a tally mark made by that class. Let’s see how this works.

Example 3.1 Tallying Scores from a Statistics Exam. Suppose a statistics professor wants to summarize how 20 students performed on an exam. Their scores are as follows: $78,56,91,59,78,84,65,97,84,71,84,44,69,90,73,77,80,90,68$, and 75. Data in this form are called nongrouped data or raw data. We can use a tally table like Table $3.1$ to list the number of occurrences, of frequency, of each score. A corresponding diagram is shown in Fig. 3.1.

This table presents nongrouped data, and no pattern emerges from them. As an alternative, the data can be grouped into classes by letter grade. If the professor uses a straight grading scale, the classes might be 90-99, 80-89, 70-79, 60-69, and below 60 . After establishing the classes, the professor counts scores in each class and records these numbers to obtain a tally sheet, as shown in Table $3.2$ and Fig. 3.2.

Note that each observation is included in one and only one class. The tallies are counted, and a frequency table is constructed as shown in Table 3.3, where letter grades are assigned to each class.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。