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建筑史是对建筑学的研究,因为它在几个世纪以来,在许多不同的景观和文化中不断演变。建筑史可以追溯到古代美索不达米亚人、埃及人、希腊文明等,是一部全球历史。

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我们提供的建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARC1720

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Of Empire and Infrastructure

The arrival of monolithic Egyptian granite in Rome begins with the first emperor. After Julius Caesar’s heir Octavian defeated the Ptolemaic Pharaoh Cleopatra and her consort, Marc Antony, at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, Egypt was annexed as a Roman province. Within a year, and after the suicide of Cleopatra and Antony, Octavian became the sole ruler of Egypt-an act of unification of the Northern and Southern Mediterranean that Tivy claimed “hrought ahout peace on land and sea ” $\mathrm{As}$ the Macedonian kings of Egypt had done since the late fourth century BCE, Octavian immediately crowned himself Pharaoh in Egypt and began temple-building projects and sculptural programs that included his own image in the Pharaonic style (Figure 1.2). In $27 \mathrm{BCE}$, he was the first Roman ruler to be given the divine title Augustus.

Octavian, now Augustus, exercised command over an expanding empire and began developing a complex infrastructural network for the transport of building materials. Writing in the second and third centuries, Suetonius and Dio declared that Augustus found Rome made of brick and clay, but left it a city of marble. ${ }^6$ Despite Dio’s disclaimer that Augustus “did not thereby refer literally to the appearance of its buildings, but rather to the strength of the empire,” there was actually a considerable amount of truth to the lithic metaphor: it was because of Augustus that Rome began to import and display Egyptian obelisks after $10 \mathrm{BCE}$ – the first two being the Montecitorio and Flaminian obelisks- and it was also because of Augustus that marble, “both coloured and white,” became integral to Roman architectural projects that were “on a scale hitherto unknown.”7

Augustus inherited a Mediterranean world in which architectural marble and granite were already in use. He also inherited an established network of grain transport, a resource that Vitruvius claimed was behind the establishment of Alexandria as a major port city. ${ }^8$ In a move that emulated Alexander, Augustus amplified military presence in Egypt to secure these resource networks. ${ }^9$ The empire controlled Ptolemaic mines and quarries after annexation, and as the relevance of stone materials increased in Rome, emperors pushed towards the “nationalization” of lithics. ${ }^{10}$ While there is evidence of Pharaonic mining in the eastern Sahara, it was the Romans who developed a massive network of new roads and settlements devoted to quarrying. Pharaonic Red Sea ports connected Egypt to Arabia, southern Africa, and India. “Whole ships were assembled on the Nile, disassembled inland, and carried across the desert in “ship kits” to the Red Sea, where they were reassembled. ${ }^{12}$ These routes required roads in the eastern desert. With Pharaonic networks already established, Augustus simply had to update and expand the infrastructure to accommodate a new demand for Egyptian shafts.

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|The Symbolic Power of Granite

Rome’s embrace of granite as a sign of power emerges from a series of events that began with the formation of the prehistoric Egyptian state. Before the fourth millennium BCE, agrarian societies developed along the fertile banks and floodplains of the Nile river. With localized stability came the development of centers of production, marketable goods, and trade with West Asia. ${ }^{26}$ Art from the fourth millennium evidences cross-cultural transmission, which has led to the conclusion that Egypt and Mesopotamia were developing trade networks, most likely through intermediaries in Canaan and Palestine. With access to the delta and the sea, Lower Egyptian traders directed these emerging entrepôts, which solicited attention from the powerful Upper Egyptian kings to the south, who took control over both regions and moved the capital north to Memphis. In Egyptian religion, this moment of unification at the end of the fourth millennium BCE was cast as a cosmological event: a world-view wherein ma’at-order-was established.

Upon unification, kings used granite from Upper Egypt as the intimate lining of inner tomb chambers to ensure an eternal afterlife. First Dynasty King Den’s tomb in Abydos (ca. 2950 BCE) is the earliest extant use of Aswan granite in Egyptian architecture, and was a model for successors, whose architects took advantage of the Nile’s embedded infrastructure to transport granite blocks $1,000 \mathrm{~km}$ to mortuary complexes in Saqqara and Dahshur. ${ }^{27}$ Future memory of a unified kingdom demanded eternal presence for deceased nobles, and Aswan granite supplied the durable material to inscribe this message in architecture. The conspicuous consumption of energy rhetorized the ruler as Pharaoh, a more than human king with divine command over society and nature.

Fourth Dynasty rulers imported massive shipments of Aswan granite to build the pyramids on the Giza plateau (ca. 2500 BCE). While architects used nearby limestone for the fabric of the mortuary complex, they used granite as structural adornment in the lining of the interior chambers and the sarcophagus itself. The durability of granite was likely considered, as it was also used to encapsulate the pyramids below the final casing of polished limestone. ${ }^{28} \mathrm{R}$ itual function is also clear: the movement of stone from Upper to Lower Egypt was infrastructural performance of unification. The scale of transport ended after the third largest pyramid was built, and by the decline of the Old Kingdom around 2150 BCE, the pyramids at Giza had been left to stand unattended and were raided. Political dissent effected the downfall of the Sixth Dynasty, and the once-unified Egyptian state fragmented into discrete nomes (provinces) ruled by princes.

Later Egyptians knew that Aswan granite had been the choice medium for the massive tombs of the Old Kingdom; its cosmological significance amplified through architecture. ${ }^{29}$ Around $2040 \mathrm{BCE}$, Theban kings reconquered Lower Egypt and reunified the state under a single Egyptian ruler. Early dynastic uses of granite rhetorically boasted unification, and granite in Middle Kingdom architectural programs “indicated the importance of the building.” ${ }^{30}$ Centuries later, the state was divided after the invasion and establishment of a Hyksos ruler in Lower Egypt. A Theban king directed his armies north, reconquered Lower Egypt, and the state was unified, once again. New Kingdom Pharaohs resubstantiated the rhetoric of unification through monumentality and sculptural styles from both the Old and the Middle Kingdoms; this included the quarrying and transport of granite at a magnitude that had not been seen for centuries. ${ }^{31}$ These repetitive stages-series of events that Whitney Davis calls “chains of replication”-continually processed Egyptian kingship through events that linked governance over society with infrastructural command over nature. ${ }^{32}$

During the first millennium BCE, Egypt struggled to remain unified. Resubstantiating dynastic iconography and materials sustained the Egyptian world-view during these periods of crisis, and Aswan granite conveyed the currency of this message. ${ }^{33}$ In 332, Alexander III of Macedon took control of Egypt from the Persians and was embraced as a divine savior. Upon his death in 323 , his empire was divided up by his generals, and Ptolemy I Soter took Egypt. Ptolemy did not just rule as a Macedonian king-he took on the role of Pharaoh, had his image carved in Egyptian style, and continued the worship of Egyptian gods in temples from the previous millennia. The durability of this religious devotion as well as the materials that secured it in architecture would prove irresistible to the expanding Roman Empire.

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARC1720

建筑史代考

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Of Empire and Infrastructure

整体埃及花岗岩在罗马的到来始于第一位皇帝。公元前 31 年,在朱利叶斯·凯撒的继承人屋大维在亚克兴战役中击败托勒密法老克利奥帕特拉和她的配偶马克·安东尼之后,埃及被并入罗马行省。一年之内,在克利奥帕特拉和安东尼自杀后,屋大维成为埃及的唯一统治者——蒂维声称这是一个统一南北地中海的行动,“带来了陆地和海洋的和平”作为自公元前 4 世纪后期以来,埃及的马其顿国王就这样做了,屋大维立即在埃及为自己加冕为法老,并开始建造寺庙项目和雕塑计划,其中包括他自己的法老风格形象(图 1.2)。在27公元前,他是第一位获得神圣头衔奥古斯都的罗马统治者。

屋大维(现在的奥古斯都)指挥着一个不断扩张的帝国,并开始开发一个复杂的基础设施网络来运输建筑材料。苏埃托尼乌斯和迪奥在二、三世纪写作时宣称,奥古斯都发现罗马是用砖和粘土建成的,但留下的却是一座大理石城。6尽管迪奥否认奥古斯都“并没有因此从字面上指其建筑物的外观,而是指帝国的实力”,但这个石器隐喻实际上有相当多的真实性:正是由于奥古斯都,罗马才开始导入并展示埃及方尖碑10公元前– 前两个是 Montecitorio 和 Flaminian 方尖碑 – 也正是因为奥古斯都,“彩色和白色”的大理石成为“前所未有的规模”的罗马建筑项目不可或缺的一部分。 7

奥古斯都继承了一个地中海世界,其中建筑大理石和花岗岩已经在使用。他还继承了已建立的谷物运输网络,维特鲁威声称这是将亚历山大港建成主要港口城市的原因。8为了效仿亚历山大,奥古斯都扩大了在埃及的军事存在,以确保这些资源网络的安全。9帝国吞并后控制了托勒密的矿山和采石场,随着罗马石材相关性的增加,皇帝们推动了石器的“国有化”。10虽然在撒哈拉东部有法老采矿的证据,但罗马人开发了一个庞大的新道路网络和专门用于采石的定居点。法老红海港口将埃及与阿拉伯、南部非洲和印度连接起来。“整艘船在尼罗河上组装,在内陆拆卸,然后用“船包”穿过沙漠到达红海,在那里重新组装。12这些路线需要东部沙漠的道路。由于法老网络已经建立,奥古斯都只需更新和扩展基础设施,以满足对埃及竖井的新需求。

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|The Symbolic Power of Granite

罗马将花岗岩视为权力的象征源于一系列事件,这些事件始于史前埃及国家的形成。在公元前第四个千年之前,农业社会沿着尼罗河肥沃的河岸和洪泛区发展起来。随着地方的稳定,生产中心、适销商品和与西亚贸易的发展也随之而来。26第四千年的艺术证明了跨文化传播,由此得出结论,埃及和美索不达米亚正在发展贸易网络,很可能是通过迦南和巴勒斯坦的中介机构。由于可以进入三角洲和大海,下埃及商人将这些新兴的转口港引向南方,这引起了强大的上埃及国王的注意,他们控制了这两个地区并将首都​​向北迁至孟菲斯。在埃及宗教中,公元前四千年末的这一统一时刻被视为一个宇宙事件:建立了ma’at-order的世界观。

统一后,国王使用来自上埃及的花岗岩作为内墓室的亲密衬里,以确保来世永生。位于阿比多斯的第一王朝国王登墓(约公元前 2950 年)是埃及建筑中现存最早的阿斯旺花岗岩的使用,是继任者的典范,其建筑师利用尼罗河的嵌入式基础设施运输花岗岩块1,000 公里到 Saqqara 和 Dahshur 的太平间。27统一王国的未来记忆要求已故贵族永远存在,而阿斯旺花岗岩提供了耐用的材料,将这一信息铭刻在建筑中。能源的显着消耗将统治者形容为法老,一个超越人类的国王,对社会和自然拥有神圣的指挥权。

第四王朝的统治者大量进口阿斯旺花岗岩,以在吉萨高原建造金字塔(约公元前 2500 年)。虽然建筑师们使用附近的石灰石作为太平间的结构,但他们使用花岗岩作为内部房间和石棺本身的衬里的结构装饰。花岗岩的耐用性可能被考虑在内,因为它也被用来将金字塔封装在抛光石灰石的最终外壳下方。28R它的功能也很明确:石头从上埃及到下埃及的运动是统一的基础设施表现。运输规模在第三大金字塔建成后结束,随着古王国在公元前 2150 年左右的衰落,吉萨的金字塔无人看管并遭到袭击。政治异议导致了第六王朝的垮台,曾经统一的埃及国家分裂为由王子统治的离散的名称(省)。

后来埃及人知道,阿斯旺花岗岩一直是古王国巨大墓葬的首选介质。它的宇宙学意义通过建筑被放大。29大约2040公元前,底比斯国王重新征服了下埃及,并在一个埃及统治者的统治下重新统一了国家。花岗岩的早期王朝使用在修辞上吹嘘统一,而花岗岩在中国的建筑项目中“表明了建筑的重要性”。30几个世纪后,在下埃及入侵和建立希克索斯统治者后,国家分裂。一位底比斯国王指挥他的军队向北,重新征服了下埃及,国家再次统一。新王国法老通过旧王国和中王国的纪念碑和雕塑风格重新证实了统一的言辞;这包括以数百年来从未见过的规模开采和运输花岗岩。31这些重复的阶段——惠特尼戴维斯称之为“复制链”的一系列事件——通过将社会治理与基础设施对自然的控制联系起来的事件,不断地处理埃及王权。32

在公元前第一个千年,埃及努力保持统一。在这些危机时期,重新证实王朝图像和材料维持了埃及的世界观,而阿斯旺花岗岩传达了这一信息的普遍性。33332 年,马其顿的亚历山大三世从波斯人手中控制了埃及,并被奉为神圣的救世主。在他于 323 年去世后,他的帝国被他的将军瓜分,托勒密一世占领了埃及。托勒密不仅以马其顿国王的身份统治——他还扮演了法老的角色,将自己的形象雕刻成埃及风格,并延续了数千年前在寺庙中对埃及神灵的崇拜。这种宗教信仰的持久性以及在建筑中保护它的材料对于不断扩张的罗马帝国来说是不可抗拒的。

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

assignmentutor™作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写