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建筑史是对建筑学的研究,因为它在几个世纪以来,在许多不同的景观和文化中不断演变。建筑史可以追溯到古代美索不达米亚人、埃及人、希腊文明等,是一部全球历史。

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我们提供的建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARCH1300

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Solar Power and Performative Infrastructure

When Augustus arrived in $30 \mathrm{BCE}$, it was not Hellenistic Egypt that fascinated him; like Alexander, it was the religion, ritual, and architecture of Egypt’s mightiest empire, the New Kingdom. Among the many trappings of Pharaonic power, Egyptian granite proved highly alluring to Roman leaders.

The significance of Egyptian granite had increased with the rise of New-Kingdom solar cults, where the ruddy stone indicated the rising and the setting of the sun. Temple roofs were opened so that the sun god-not a sculpted effigy-could be worshipped directly. Solar worship carried an erotic charge. In the temple at Heliopolis-city of the sun-a pyramidion referred to as benben is the origin of the shape of the pyramids at Giza, and of all obelisks. In Egyptian religion, after the sun god self-engendered and rose from the primeval sea, the first thing he did was masturbate. Ejaculating into the frothy water, his semen hardened and formed the first solid matter in the universe. This was the birth of the earliest landmass, the Primeval Hill. The benben was covered in gold foil so that the creamy iridescence of semen would be broadcast, and the stone was held on top of a long granite shaft to monumentalize the sun god’s penis mid-ejaculation. ${ }^{34}$ The erotic act determines formative power: it is from the sun god that the divine and human worlds were created.

Temple architecture-microcosms of the Primeval Sea and Hill-functioned as environmental analogues where mythology of cosmic origins married divine rituals of Pharaonic unification. The sed festival, held around the thirty-year mark of a king’s coronation, was a territorial performance that displayed the body of the king as the single nexus of unification as he moved between ritual architecture-once enthroned as the king of Upper Egypt, and then as king of Lower Egypt. ${ }^{35}$ Since the king’s body also represents the natural world, granite was freshly cut in Aswan and shipped up the Nile as ecological accompaniment to the performance. Beyond the ephemeral event, temple statues of the king were sculpted to perform eternal unification, a concept “expressed in the materials”: stones from the north such as brown quartzite would be used to sculpt the king of Lower Egypt, wearing a red crown (deshret), and granite from the south was used to sculpt the king of Upper Egypt, wearing the white crown (hedjet). ${ }^{36}$ The king’s body performed the infrastructural machinations of the ongoing unification of the Egyptian state.

While the sed festival spanned the dynasties, the opet festival was practiced during and after the New Kingdom in Thebes. The temples at Karnak and Luxor face each other on a north-south axis, connected by a sphinx-lined path. The king and his entourage would assemble at Karnak with an array of ritual regalia, including a barque that contained a concealed sculpture of Amun-Ra-Karnak’s combined deity, both sun god and creator of the universe. The boisterous, celebratory procession made its way to Luxor where, upon entering the temple, the generative life-force-ka-of all deceased kings would rejuvenate divine kingship. ${ }^{37}$ Ithyphallic-erect—deities were depicted as part of the transmission of $\mathrm{ka}$, as rejuvenation ensured with each rising sun the king’s bull-like virility and fertile potential to create. ${ }^{38}$

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Building the Pantheon

Considering Rome’s active presence in Egyptian religion, it is no surprise that Egyptian architectural programs appear in Rome. The Ara Pacis provides a case in point. The Roman Senate commissioned the Ara Pacis following Augustus’ victories in Spain and Gaul in $13 \mathrm{BCE}$, and dedicated it four years later on the Campus Martius. Combining sculpted panels of mythology and family history, the altar is as much a monument of peace as it is a display of dynastic origins. ${ }^{40}$ While the sculpted ornament is appropriately Hellenistic in the early imperial style, the architectural iconography is identical to the New Kingdom chapels that were still used at Karnak during Augustus’ time in Egypt. ${ }^{+1}$ When considered as part of the urban organization of the Campus Martius, particularly the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Montecitorio Obelisk, and the Pantheon, the Egyptian origin of the Ara Pacis is further solidified.

It is within this larger spatial program of the Campus Martius that the Pantheon most clearly evinces the architectural substantiation of the Egyptian world view. This is present in iconographic transference, orientation, and material. To design and supervise the construction of the Pantheon, Augustus tapped his son-in-law and trusted counsel Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippa likely drew on the Alexandrian temple devoted to Macedonian and Egyptian gods as a prototype for his design. ${ }^{42}$ The Tychaion was circular with twelve sculptural niches and a colossal statue of a Ptolemaic Pharaoh was lauded. The Pantheon is alike in structural form, has eight niches in similar distribution, and inside stood a colossal statue of Julius Caesar. Further, the iconographic source of Augustus’ Mausoleum is most likely Alexander’s rotunda tomb in Alexandria, which means that both the Mausoleum and the Pantheon have probable iconographic sources in Egypt.

The orientation of the Pantheon places it in dialogue with the Mausoleum and the Ara Pacis. The Pantheon veers slightly northwest so that the entrance of the pantheon can form a perfect axial line with the mausoleum’s entrance. Since both buildings were constructed at the same time, and the urban space between them was open, their axial coincidence is unlikely. ${ }^{43}$ The Ara Pacis, while slightly east of the axial line, received ceremonial processions that traversed the distance between the mausoleum and Pantheon. In other words, processions used the Ara Pacis the same way in Rome as they did in Egypt, suggesting that the mausoleum and Pantheon could represent Lower and Upper Egypt, or perhaps in a broader sense the ideal of imperial unity.

The orientation also reveals a crossover of solar worship, present in the installation of the Montecitorio obelisk as the gnomon for Augustus’s sundial. Diane Favro argues “each day, the sun god Apollo brought the Horologium Augusti to life.” ${ }^{44}$ Every morning the sun cast its shadow east toward the Ara Pacis, then in the afternoon, south toward the Pantheon, finally reaching north to the Mausoleum Augusti. The solar narrative illuminates Augustus’ origins, then the conquest of Egypt that defined Rome as a newly formed Empire, and ends in the final resting place of the Julii. Roman carryover of Egyptian erotics in solar religion is also evident. John Pollini argues that the Egyptian word for obelisk thn (to pierce) and the Greek word obeliskos (small spit, or skewer) are sexual when considering the origin of the benben in solar religion, from which the phallic form of the obelisk derives, and the procreative language used in Augustus’ own expressions of bringing forth peace. ${ }^{45}$ On September 23, Augustus’ birthday, the shadow of the obelisk penetrated the doorway of the Ara Pacis: a symbol of generative cosmic bırth and erective power approprıated from Egyptian ritual.

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARCH1300

建筑史代考

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Solar Power and Performative Infrastructure

当奥古斯都抵达时30公元前,让他着迷的不是希腊化的埃及;像亚历山大一样,它是埃及最强大的帝国新王国的宗教、仪式和建筑。在法老权力的众多标志中,埃及花岗岩被证明对罗马领导人极具吸引力。

埃及花岗岩的重要性随着新王国太阳崇拜的兴起而增加,红色的石头表示太阳的升起和落下。寺庙屋顶被打开,以便可以直接供奉太阳神——不是雕刻的肖像。太阳崇拜带有色情色彩。在太阳城赫利奥波利斯的神庙里,一座被称为本本的金字塔是吉萨金字塔和所有方尖碑的起源。在埃及宗教中,太阳神自生并从原始海洋中升起后,他做的第一件事就是手淫。射入泡沫的水中,他的精液变硬并形成了宇宙中的第一个固体物质。这是最早的大陆原始山的诞生。便便被金箔包裹着,这样精液的奶油色虹彩就会散发出来,34色情行为决定了形成的力量:神圣世界和人类世界都是由太阳神创造的。

寺庙建筑——原始海和山丘的缩影——作为环境的类似物,宇宙起源的神话与法老统一的神圣仪式结合在一起。sed 节在国王加冕三十年左右举行,是一种领土表演,将国王的身体展示为统一的唯一纽带,因为他在仪式建筑之间移动 – 曾经登基为上埃及国王,和然后作为下埃及的国王。35由于国王的身体也代表了自然世界,花岗岩在阿斯旺新鲜切割并运往尼罗河,作为表演的生态伴奏。除了短暂的事件之外,国王的寺庙雕像被雕刻以实现永恒的统一,这一概念“表达在材料中”:来自北方的石头,如棕色石英岩将被用来雕刻下埃及国王,戴着红色的王冠( deshret),南方的花岗岩被用来雕刻上埃及的国王,戴着白色的王冠(hedjet)。36国王的遗体执行了埃及国家正在进行的统一的基础设施计划。

虽然 sed 节跨越了朝代,但 opet 节是在底比斯的新王国期间和之后举行的。卡纳克神庙和卢克索神庙在南北轴线上相互面对,由一条狮身人面像排列的小路相连。国王和他的随从将带着一系列仪式盛装在卡纳克聚集,其中包括一艘载有阿蒙-拉-卡纳克联合神祇的隐蔽雕塑的船,既是太阳神又是宇宙的创造者。喧闹、庆祝的游行队伍前往卢克索,进入神殿后,所有已故国王的生机勃勃的生命力将重振神圣的王权。37Ithyphallic-erect—神被描绘为传播的一部分这,随着每一个升起的太阳,国王的公牛般的男子气概和肥沃的创造潜力确保了复兴。38

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Building the Pantheon

考虑到罗马在埃及宗教中的积极存在,埃及建筑项目出现在罗马也就不足为奇了。Ara Pacis 就是一个很好的例子。在奥古斯都在西班牙和高卢的胜利之后,罗马元老院委托了 Ara Pacis13公元前,并在四年后将其献给了校园 Martius。结合神话和家族历史的雕刻面板,祭坛既是和平的纪念碑,也是王朝起源的展示。40虽然雕刻的装饰品在早期的帝国风格中具有适当的希腊化风格,但其建筑肖像与奥古斯都在埃及期间仍在卡纳克使用的新王国教堂相同。+1当考虑作为马蒂乌斯校园城市组织的一部分时,特别是奥古斯都陵墓、蒙特西托里奥方尖碑和万神殿,Ara Pacis 的埃及起源进一步巩固。

正是在马蒂乌斯校园这个更大的空间计划中,万神殿最清楚地证明了埃及世界观的建筑证实。这存在于图像转移、定向和材料中。为了设计和监督万神殿的建设,奥古斯都聘请了他的女婿和信任的顾问马库斯·维普萨尼乌斯·阿格里帕。阿格里帕很可能借鉴了献给马其顿和埃及诸神的亚历山大神庙作为他设计的原型。42Tychaion 是圆形的,有十二个雕塑壁龛,有一尊托勒密法老的巨大雕像受到称赞。万神殿结构形式相似,有八个分布相似的壁龛,里面矗立着凯撒大帝的巨像。此外,奥古斯都陵墓的肖像来源很可能是亚历山大在亚历山大的圆形陵墓,这意味着陵墓和万神殿在埃及都有可能的肖像来源。

万神殿的方向使其与陵墓和阿拉帕西斯对话。万神殿略微向西北偏转,使万神殿入口与陵墓入口形成完美的轴线。由于两座建筑是同时建造的,而且它们之间的城市空间是开放的,它们的轴向重合的可能性不大。43Ara Pacis,虽然在轴线稍偏东,但接受了穿越陵墓和万神殿之间距离的仪式游行。换句话说,游行队伍在罗马和在埃及的使用方式一样,表明陵墓和万神殿可以代表下埃及和上埃及,或者在更广泛的意义上可能是帝国统一的理想。

这个方向还揭示了太阳崇拜的交叉,出现在作为奥古斯都日晷的指针的 Montecitorio 方尖碑的安装中。黛安·法夫罗认为“每一天,太阳神阿波罗都将奥古斯蒂钟表赋予生命。”44每天早晨,太阳将其阴影向东投向 Ara Pacis,然后在下午向南投向万神殿,最后向北投向奥古斯都陵墓。太阳的叙述阐明了奥古斯都的起源,然后是对埃及的征服,将罗马定义为一个新成立的帝国,并在 Julii 的最后安息之地结束。太阳宗教中埃及色情的罗马结转也很明显。约翰波利尼认为,当考虑到太阳宗教中 benben 的起源时,埃及词中的方尖碑 thn(刺穿)和希腊词 obeliskos(小唾液或串)是性的,方尖碑的阳具形式来源于此,并且奥古斯都自己表达和平时使用的生育语言。459 月 23 日,奥古斯都的生日,方尖碑的影子穿透了 Ara Pacis 的门口:这是从埃及仪式中获得的宇宙诞生和勃起力量的象征。

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

assignmentutor™作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写