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assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写国际经济学International Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写国际经济学International Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写国际经济学International Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|国际经济学代写International Economics代考|Technology for Sale

Suppose the home country has absolute advantage in producing both computers and textiles but has a comparative disadvantage in computers that it imports from the foreign country. Thus, though $a_{L C}<a_{L C}^$ and $a_{L T}$, the productivity differences are asymmetric in the two lines of production such that equation (5.7) holds. When the home country transfers its superior technology of producing computers (in which it has a comparative disadvantage) to the foreign country, the unit labour requirements for producing computers in both countries will be the same, which is, $a_{l c^*}$

## 经济代写|国际经济学代写International Economics代考|INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TECHNOLOGY CHOICE

What is now clear from the discussion so far is that production technologies available to countries determine the pattern of their respective comparative advantage and consequently the pattern of trade. However, as discussed in the earlier chapters, countries can upgrade production technologies and develop new goods or newer varieties through research and development (R\&D) undertaken by firms. International trade by itself can create the environment and provide incentives to undertake such $\mathrm{R} \& \mathrm{D}$ activities and lead to technological changes. Comparative advantage itself thus can be strengthened or even reversed. This was the essence of Adam Smith’s dynamic productivity gains from trade and Michael Porter’s argument of selective factor disadvantage. A similar argument also holds centre-stage in literature on trade and endogenous growth that will be discussed in a later chapter.

In a recent case study of Korean information and communication technology (ICT) sector, Onodera and Kim (2008) observe that more open trade and investment increased incentives for innovation through greater competition. A host of factors contributed towards this favourable effect. Tariffs in the ICT sector that still exceeded 10 per cent in the early 1990s, were cut rapidly, the import diversification programme that protected the Korean industry from Japanese competitors in the domestic market was progressively phased out, and foreign direct investment (FDI) was increasingly opened up. These open trade and investment policies provided stronger incentives for Korean companies to innovate and seek out international markets while also improving access to a wider range of foreign technology. The introduction of international standards and the deregulation of telecommunication services were also extremely important for innovations in the telecom equipment industry. This policy resulted in Korea emerging as one of the early developers of the CDMA technology in mobile telephone services. The $R \& D$ policy and the intellectual property rights policy supported the transformation of the ICT industry. Increased protection of intellectual property rights had a positive impact as the average number of patents granted in the United States to Korean firms increased five-fold from about 200 per annum during 1987-91 to about 1,000 per annum during 1992-96, and to over 3,000 per annum during 1997-2001.

However, the favourable impact of international trade on R\&D and technological upgrading is neither a self-enforcing proposition theoretically nor are country experiences in this regard unambiguous and conclusive. The idea behind trade having a favourable impact on technology is that competition from cheaper imports from abroad induces local firms to invest in cost-reducing and product-quality enhancing R\&D. On the flip side is the argument based on the Schumpeterian hypothesis that competition is not necessarily conducive to innovation. Too much competition lowers profits of firms and thus lowers the incentives for firms to undertake $\mathrm{R} \& \mathrm{D}$ that is uncertain and involves huge sunk costs. We will learn more about this later.

# 国际经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师