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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|国际经济学代写International Economics代考|CONSTANT OPPORTUNITY COST, TECHNOLOGY, AND TRADE

Consider a home country producing two goods, computers and cotton textiles, using only labour with a fixed coefficient technology. Suppose labour is homogeneous and can move around freely without any cost. Production of computers does not require any specific skills so that the same workers can do both the jobs. All this means that workers earn the same money wage, $W$, everywhere in the home country. The production technology, however, differs across the two sectors, which is reflected in different labour-output ratios in computers and textiles production. More precisely, suppose $a_{L C}$ units of labour are required to produce one computer and $a_{L T}$ units of labour are required to produce one unit of textiles. These labour coefficients depend on the technology available in the home country. A technological improvement in the computer sector, for example, means a smaller number of workers can produce one unit of computers. Given these labour requirements, if $L_c$ number of workers are employed in computer production and $L_T$ number of workers in textiles production, the output levels are:
\begin{aligned} &X_C=\frac{L_C}{a_{L C}} \ &X_T=\frac{L_T}{a_{L T}} \end{aligned}
Note that under the assumption of fixed coefficient production technology, $a_{L C}$ (and $a_{L T}$ ) reflect reciprocal of both average and marginal productivities.

Zero profit conditions under perfectly competitive market conditions everywhere mean that computers and textiles in our home country are produced up to the level for which price equals average (and marginal) cost:
\begin{aligned} &P_C=a_{L C} W \ &P_T=a_{L T} W \end{aligned}
Combining (5.3) and (5.4) we get the relative supply price for computers as the ratio of per unit labour requirements:
$$\frac{P_C}{P_T}=\frac{a_{L C}}{a_{L T}}$$

## 经济代写|国际经济学代写International Economics代考|ROLE OF RELATIVE SIZE OF TRADING NATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF GFT

For open economies, excess demand or trade volumes reflect their sizes. A country may be consuming and producing a lot of commodities and in very large quantities, yet it may be small in the world market if there is very little over-production to be exported or very little excess demand to be imported. Ricardo argued that all the gains from trade will accrue to such a small country when it trades with nations that export and import relatively larger volumes. The explanation is that the larger country in this sense cannot specialize completely, because if it does, then its demand for the other good cannot be met by imports from a smaller trading partner. Consequently, it will not experience any improvements in the terms of trade after trade and therefore will not gain. His argument can be illustrated in terms of Figure 5.3, where the post-trade international equilibrium in a Ricardian set up is shown in terms of offer curves. Recall from Chapter 4 that offer curves will have linear segments under constant opportunity costs. The length of the linear segment depends on the maximum possible production of export goods. In the Ricardian set up with labour as the only factor production, this in turn depends on the size of the labour force in each country. This can be verified from (5.2) in the case of our home country.

In Figure 5.3, given labour coefficients, if the home and foreign countries do not have significantly different sizes of their respective labour forces, they will not differ much in their maximum production capacities for textiles and computers respectively. This case is illustrated by the foreign offer curve being $\mathrm{O} K_0^* F$. The terms of trade, the slope of the line connecting the origin and the intersection of the offer curves $\mathrm{O} K H$ and $\mathrm{OK} K_0^* F$, lies strictly between the pre-trade price ratios in the two countries as reflected by the absolute slope of line segments $\mathrm{O} K$ and $\mathrm{O} K_0^*$.

The offer curve $\mathrm{O} K_1^* F^{\prime}$ represents a larger sized foreign country. The international equilibrium now occurs at point $E$ along the linear segment of the foreign offer curve so that the terms of trade is the same as the pre-trade price ratio. There is thus no improvement in the terms of trade for the foreign country after trade, and hence no gains from trade. Note that the foreign country is incompletely specialized, producing textiles along with computers. As mentioned earlier, if it had been completely specialized, neither its volume of exports of computers could be fully demanded, nor its larger import demand for textiles could be fully supplied by the smaller home country. Thus, the foreign country is forced to be incompletely specialized and fails to take advantage of the cross-country price differences that exist. The smaller home country, on the other hand, is completely specialized as its corresponding export supply and import demand can be realized and it thus takes away all the gains from trade.

To sum up, similar sized countries in the sense defined above will mutually gain from opening up of trade among them provided the pattern of trade follows a comparative advantage. But when relatively asymmetric sized countries engage in trade among them, all the gains from trade accrue to the country that is small in international trade.

# 国际经济学代考

## 经济代写|国际经济学代写国际经济代考|持续的机会成本，技术和贸易

\begin{aligned} &X_C=\frac{L_C}{a_{L C}} \ &X_T=\frac{L_T}{a_{L T}} \end{aligned}

\begin{aligned} &P_C=a_{L C} W \ &P_T=a_{L T} W \end{aligned}

$$\frac{P_C}{P_T}=\frac{a_{L C}}{a_{L T}}$$

.

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MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
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