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assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写国际经济学International Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写国际经济学International Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写国际经济学International Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

Comparative advantage is not a static concept. In a dynamic world, comparative advantages of nations change rapidly causing rise or fall of countries as leading exporters of a particular commodity in global trade. Thus, a nation’s comparative advantage in a commodity based on ${ }^4$ The use of child labour or the existence of very low safety standards may produce the same kind of perverse competitiveness by enabling a country to produce a good at a relatively lower cost.

Examples of comparative disadvantages being turned into comparative advantages abound. In many European markets, rigid labour laws brought in automation of production processes and improved production technologies. The automated production process in Japan replaced labour to a large extent, which reduced production costs and improved the quality of outputs to establish the country’s comparative advantage in electronics. The cold and extreme weather conditions in the Netherlands are not conducive for horticulture. This disadvantage has been overcome by developing glasshouse growing techniques for its cut flower industry. Such techniques also allowed frequent upgrading as compared to traditional cultivation techniques. As a result, the Netherlands has been able to achieve continued differentiation in terms of freshness, quality, and variety of cut flowers and remain as the world leader in the cut flower industry for quite a long time.

For India, poor physical infrastructure prohibited its sucecss in hardware development unlike China, Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan, and pushed skilled Indians to specialize in software development. Aided by adoption of information technology, language skills and low labour costs, India now commands most of the outsourcing activities in the world in software development and ITeS.
However, comparative disadvantage being a strength and a stimulant of innovation works in favour of a country only when the other determinants of comparative advantage are conducive. A significant pool of skilled personnel and a nation’s progress in science and technology support innovation. Demand conditions, domestic or foreign, are also important. India’s emerging strength and comparative advantage in software services and ITeS has been enabled by large pool of skilled labour and language proficiency. Its geographical location in a different time zone vis-à-vis the United States also makes it an important destination for outsourcing of ITeS for US companies.

## 经济代写|国际经济学代写International Economics代考|Global value chains

An important dimension of international trade that can be observed since 1990 s is fragmentation of vertical stages of production with different countries producing and specializing in different stages of production. Now most of the manufacturing goods and, of course, services, are produced not in a single country. Different parts and components are produced in different countries before its final assembly or final production stage. That is, a single finished product often results from manufacturing and assembly in multiple countries, with each stage generating and adding value to the end product. This production processes, known also as the global value chains (GVCs), have led to phenomenal growth in trade in intermediate goods over the last three decades as outputs of lower stages are shipped from the countries specializing in such stages to the countries that specialize in higher stages, and from there to the country producing the final good. Such international fragmentation of production processes and GVCs have also led to a lot of capital inflows, foreign direct investment, and transfer of technical knowhow from the developed to the developing countries through outsourcing of different production stages or processes. We will have a more elaborate discussion on these dimensions in Chapter $16 .$

Such production specialization in ‘stages of production’ by nations is governed mostly by the comparative advantage of nations along the vertical stages of production. This vertical specialization is in contrast to comparative advantage of nations in different commodities, the horizontal specialization, as we have discussed earlier. However, the fundamental determinants of such comparative advantage in vertical stages of production are essentially the same: technology and factor endowment. The abundance of low skill labour in the developing countries establishes a comparative advantage for these countries in lower stages of production that are relatively low-skill and less capital intensive. But, as the successively higher stages of production become more and more skilled-labour intensive and/or capital intensive per unit of output in that stage, the developed countries endowed with relatively more of these factors have a comparative advantage in such stages. Thus, we can observe lower stages of production being organized usually in the developing countries whereas the higher stages of production including production of the final good are organized in the developed countries. For similar reasons, the product development stage, from research and development (R\&D) to successful innovation of a product, its design and/or blue print, are done in the developed countries that not only have the skilled manpower but also invest significant proportions of the gross domestic products (or national incomes) on $\mathrm{R} \& \mathrm{D}$. Much simpler tasks of assembly line production are outsourced to and organized in developing countries due to cheap labour there. Typical example is assembly line production in Mexico.

# 国际经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
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assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师