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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|金融数学代写Intro to Mathematics of Finance代考|Adjusting for Risk through Discounting

Most financial securities such as stocks and bonds are claims to cash flows emanating from underlying real assets such as the assets of a corporation. For example, a shareholder or bondholder in an airline company invests in order to receive cash flows generated by the successful operations of the firm. The value of one of these securities is equal to the expected cash flows offered by the security discounted for the time value of money and adjusted for the riskiness of the cash flows.

Modern economies rely heavily on assets such as buildings, equipment, and technologies that are acquired using capital provided by investors. The providers of that capital demand compensation both for the time value of money and also a premium for bearing risk. Accordingly, the present or current value to an asset is based on the expected values of the asset’s future cash flows discounted for both time and risk. Put differently, the expected return or expected cash flows received by an investor from a risky asset can be divided into two components: compensation for the use of the capital through time (the time value of money) and an expected risk premium to compensate the investor for bearing risk.
Asset valuation for time and risk may be viewed somewhat like the process of renting a moving truck. Often a truck rental company will charge both a daily rate for the renter to possess the truck and a rate per mile for the renter to drive the truck. Similarly, providers of capital demand to be compensated for the time value of money with compensation made at the riskless interest rate and for bearing the risks that the actual cash flows received will differ from their expected values. Investors pay less money for risky assets than safe assets when both assets have the same expected value of future cash flows. The higher average returns demanded by investors in risky assets relative to the returns demanded by investors in riskless assets is termed a risk premium. A risk premium may therefore be viewed as an expected rate of return above and beyond the riskless interest rate that is a component of the return demanded by investors for holding risky assets.

## 数学代写|金融数学代写Intro to Mathematics of Finance代考|Spot Prices and the Mechanics of Forward Contracts

A spot price of an asset such as a financial asset or commodity is the current price for immediate delivery of that financial asset or commodity. For example, if an airline company purchases jet fuel for immediate delivery and with immediate payment it is known as a spot transaction and is executed in a competitive market (the spot market) at the spot price of jet fuel. In this section, we discuss guaranteed contracts for purchase and delivery known as forward contracts in which the agreements require delivery and payment on a substantially delayed basis such as weeks, months, or even years.
A forward contract is an agreement where the long position or buyer in the contract agrees to buy a specified asset on a specified date at a specified price and the short position or seller of the contract agrees to deliver that asset to the buyer under the specified terms. The agreed date $T$ at which delivery is scheduled to take place is known as the delivery date (or settlement date or expiration date). The pre-specified price $F$ at which the exchange will take place is the forward price or delivery price. The forward contract specifies terms of the delivery such as the quantity and quality of the asset to be delivered as well as the time and location at which delivery is to take place.
For example, on January 1, 2022, an airline company may enter into a long position in a forward contract to purchase 100,000 gallons of jet fuel on July 1,2022 , at $\$ 2.50$per gallon. An energy refiner may enter into the short side of the contract by promising to deliver the fuel for$\$2.50$ per gallon. Both sides of the forward contract are reducing or hedging their business risk by locking in prices on January 1 rather than taking the risk that the price may move against them by July 1 . The airline can sell airplane tickets with confidence regarding its future fuel costs while the energy refiner may arrange to purchase crude oil with confidence that the refiner will be able to sell its refined fuel at a profitable price.

# 金融数学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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