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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|CMOS Layout

As it can be seen from Figure 1.33, a layout is another view of the circuit. In other words, both layout and circuit denote the same thing just like a coin being looked at from both sides. Nevertheless, different viewpoints about a digital integrated circuit do exist between circuit engineering and computer science. From the circuit engineering viewpoint, a digital integrated circuit is a system composed of circuits built on the surface of a silicon chip; from the computer science viewpoint, a digital integrated circuit is a set of geometrical patterns on the surface of a silicon chip.

As a consequence, from the circuit engineering/computer science viewpoint, a VLSI design is a system design discipline with the following two features. First, groups of circuits/patterns, called modules, represent different logic functions and can be repeated many times in a system. Second, complexity could be dealt with using the concept of repeated circuits/patterns that are put together hierarchically.

Fundamentally, a circuit is an abstract design that represents only the idea in one’s mind. To implement the circuit, physical devices, either discrete devices or integrated circuits, must be used. As a result, a layout of a circuit is also only an abstract representation of the design. It denotes all information required for fabricating the circuit in an IC foundry. To illustrate the relationship between a layout and an actual IC fabrication, consider Figure 1.43, which shows a layout of a CMOS inverter along with the major steps for fabricating the inverter.

A layout of a circuit indeed defines the set of masks needed in manufacturing the circuit. As it can be seen from Figure $1.43(\mathrm{a})$, there are seven mask layers required for manufacturing such a simple CMOS inverter circuit. It is worthy to note that an $\mathrm{IC}$ is made in a layer-by-layer fashion from bottom up. Since an $n$-well process is assumed to be used, the first mask is employed to define the $n$-well, where a pMOS transistor can be made, as depicted in Figure $1.43(\mathrm{~b})$. After the $n$-well is defined, it is necessary to reserve areas needed by all MOS transistors and fill the remaining part with field oxide, a thick silicon dioxide formed by the STI process, so as to isolate each MOS transistor electrically. This is defined by the active mask, as shown in Figure 1.43(c).
Once the active regions have been defined, the next step is to use the polysilicon mask to make the gates of all MOS transistors, including both pMOS and nMOS transistors, and all wires using polysilicon as well. An illustration is exhibited in Figure $1.43(\mathrm{~d})$. The next two masks are separately used to implant $p^{+}$and $n^{+}$diffusions needed in forming the drain and source regions of MOS transistors. These two masks are called $p$-select and $n$-select masks, respectively, and are derived masks obtained by bloating the size of active regions. These two masks and their effects are shown in Figures $1.43(\mathrm{e})$ and (f), respectively.

电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Implementation Options of Digital Systems

The NRE cost (fixed cost) and time to market are two major factors that affect the future trends of VLSI designs. Recall that the cost of a VLSI chip is determined by the NRE and variable costs. The NRE cost is significantly increased with the decreasing feature sizes of manufacture processes due to the exponentially increased cost of related equipments, photolithography masks, CAD tools, and R\&D. Recall that there are three important issues in designing a VLSI system with DSM processes: $I R$ drop, Ldi/dt effect, and hot-spot problems. To accurately model and analyze these three issues, it is inevitable to heavily rely on the aid of computer-aided design (CAD) tools. This means that the expensive CAD tools are indispensable for deep-submicron VLSI designs. To make the product more competitive or acceptable by the end users, the NRE cost has to be reduced profoundly. Consequently, for a VLSI chip to be successful in the market, the product volume must be large enough so as to lower the amortized NRE cost to an acceptable level by the market.

The other factor that affects the future trends of VLSI design is the time to market. Late products are often irrelevant to modern consumer markets. In addition, all electronic products have increasing system complexity with the reduction of feature sizes and hence hardware cost. Although the divide-and-conquer paradigm can be used to partition the system into many smaller modules so that each module can be easily dealt with, the combination of these different functionality modules becomes more difficult and challenging, and the accompanied testing for the combined system is even more complicated. This means that to shorten the time to market of a product, some effective design alternatives must be cxplored and used.

Based on the aforementioned factors, the future trends of VLSI (digital) system designs can be classified into three classes: ASIC’s, platforms, and field-programmable devices, as shown in Figure 1.45. One needs to choose an appropriate one from these options to meet the design specifications at the lowest cost and shortest time to market.

超大规模集成电路系统代考

电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Implementation Options of Digital Systems

NRE 成本（固定成本）和上市时间是影响 VLSI 设计未来趋势的两个主要因素。回想一下，VLSI 芯片的成本是由 NRE 和可变成本决定的。由于相关设备、光刻掩模、CAD 工具和研发的成本成倍增加，NRE 成本随着制造工艺特征尺寸的减小而显着增加。回想一下，在设计带有 DSM 流程的 VLSI 系统时存在三个重要问题：我R下降、Ldi/dt 效应和热点问题。为了准确地建模和分析这三个问题，不可避免地严重依赖计算机辅助设计 (CAD) 工具的帮助。这意味着昂贵的 CAD 工具对于深亚微米 VLSI 设计是必不可少的。为了使产品更具竞争力或被最终用户接受，必须大幅降低 NRE 成本。因此，要使超大规模集成电路芯片在市场上取得成功，产品体积必须足够大，以将摊销的 NRE 成本降低到市场可接受的水平。

有限元方法代写

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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