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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Principles of CMOS Logic Design

The basic design principles of CMOS logic can be illustrated by exploring the difference between gate logic and switch logic circuits depicted in Figures $1.15(\mathrm{a})$ and (b), respectively. In Figure 1.15(a), the output $f$ is 1 if both inputs $x$ and $y$ are 1 , and is 0 otherwise; in Figure $1.15(\mathrm{~b})$, the output $f$ is 1 if both inputs $x$ and $y$ are 1 , and is undefined otherwise. Consequently, the switch logic circuit shown in Figure 1.15(b) cannot realize the function of Figure $1.15$ (a) exactly because it only performs the function when both $x$ and $y$ are 1 but nothing else.
A general logic circuit has two definite values: $\operatorname{logic} 0$ (ground) and $\operatorname{logic} 1\left(V_{D D}\right)$. In order for a switch logic circuit to specify a definite value for every possible combination of input variables, the following two rules should be followed so as to correctly and completely realize a switching function using CMOS switches.

• Rule 1 (node-value rule): The signal summing point (such as $f$ ) must always be connected to 0 (ground) or $1\left(V_{D D}\right)$ at any time.
• Rule 2 (node-conflict-free rule): The signal summing point (such as $f$ ) must never be connected to 0 (ground) and $1\left(V_{D D}\right)$ at the same time.

Any logic circuit must always follow Rule 1 in order to work correctly. Rule 2 distinguishes a ratioless logic circuit from a ratioed one. A CMOS logic circuit is said to be ratioless if it follows both rules and is ratioed logic if $\mathbf{R}$ ule 2 is violated but the sizes of both pull-up and pull-down paths are set appropriately.

A ratioless logic circuit can always perform the designated switching function correctly regardless of the relative sizes of nMOS, pMOS, or TG switches. In contrast, for a ratioed logic circuit to function properly, the relative sizes of $\mathrm{nMOS}, \mathrm{pMOS}, \mathrm{TG}$ switches used in the circuit must be set appropriately.

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Design Techniques

The design of a VLSI chip is a complex process and is often proceeded with a hierarchical design process, including top-down and bottom-up approaches. In the design, the term abstraction is often used to mean the ability to generalize an object into a set of primitives that can describe the functionality of the object. In the following, we first cope with the concept of hierarchical design and then address the design abstraction of VLSI.
As in software programming, the divide-and-conquer paradigm is usually used to partition a large hardware system into several smaller subsystems. These subsystems are further partitioned into even smaller ones and this partition process is repeated until each subsystem can be easily handled. This system design methodology is known as a hierarchical design approach.

Generally speaking, the VLSI design methodology can be classified into two types: the top-down approach and bottom-up approach. In the top-down approach, functional details are progressively added into the system. That is to say, it creates lower-level abstractions from higher levels. These lower-level abstractions are in turn used to create even lower-level abstractions. The process is repeated until the created abstractions can be easily handled. An illustration is depicted in Figure 1.26. The 4-bit adder is decomposed into four full adders, with each consisting of two half adders and an $\mathrm{OR}$ gate. The half adder further comprises an XOR gate and an AND gate.

In contrast, in the bottom-up approach, the abstractions from lower-level behavior are created and added up to build its higher-level abstractions. These higher-level abstractions are then used to construct even higher-level abstractions. The process is repeated until the entire system is constructed.

However, a practical project usually needs the mixing efforts of both top-down and bottom-up approaches. During the design phase, the top-down approach is often used to partition a design into smaller subsystems; during the realization phase, the bottomup approach is used to implement and verify the subsystems and their combinations.
The important features of hierarchical design are modularity, locality, and regularity. The modularity means that modules have well-defined functions and interfaces. Locality implies that the detailed implementation of each module is hidden from outside. The use of the module is completely through the well-defined interface. Regularity is sometimes synonymous with reusability; namely, modules can be reused many times in a design.

Although there are many factors that also need to be taken into account in designing a VLSI chip, area budget, power dissipation, and performance are the three most important factors that designers should always keep in mind. To make a practical project successful, the designer often needs to trade off among these three factors in some sense during the course of design and implementation.

# 超大规模集成电路系统代考

## 电子工程代写|超大规模集成电路系统代写Introduction to VLSI Systems代考|Principles of CMOS Logic Design

CMOS逻辑的基本设计原理可以通过探索图中所示的门逻辑和开关逻辑电路之间的区别来说明1.15(一个)和（b），分别。在图 1.15(a) 中，输出F如果两个输入都为 1X和是为 1 ，否则为 0 ；如图1.15( b)， 输出F如果两个输入都为 1X和是是 1 ，否则未定义。因此，图1.15(b)所示的开关逻辑电路无法实现图1.15(b)的功能。1.15(a) 正是因为它仅在两者都执行时才执行该功能X和是是 1，但仅此而已。

• Rule 1（节点值规则）：信号求和点（如F) 必须始终连接到 0（接地）或1(在DD)随时。
• Rule 2（node-conflict-free rule）：信号求和点（如F) 绝不能连接到 0（地）和1(在DD)同时。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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