assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Applying Concepts of Labor Demand Elasticity

We are living in an era of extraordinary technological innovation. The computing power that can be purchased per dollar of expenditure has doubled each year or two for the past 50 years! 21 Further, the ability to digitize (convert to the computer language of ones and zeroes) text, sounds, photos, videos, and data from instruments or sensors-like a Global Positioning System (GPS)-has revolutionized both consumption and production possibilities. $\frac{22}{T}$ Taken together, the expansion of computing power and digitization have created entirely new ways to shop, make travel plans, obtain the news, fill out tax returns, read books, communicate with each other, take photographs, listen to music, and find our way around areas new to us. Those who view these stunning innovations positively point to the improvements they have made to our standard of living: it is far easier to compare and then order a myriad of goods, services, or music online than visit stores; it is usually cheaper to navigate and fill out tax returns using tax preparation programs than to take them to a tax preparation expert; using audio and visual devices, we can hold meetings with those far away from us without having to travel; and it is easier to use a GPS than a map.

Those who lament these technological advancements point out the stresses these innovations have created for many workers. We have seen the closure or shrinkage of department stores, book stores, and newspapers. Tax preparers and travel agents have had to find new jobs, and those who made a living from selling musical recordings have seen their revenues and employment opportunities decline. Are the concepts underlying the elasticity of demand for labor useful in making judgments about the effects of technological change on workers?

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Frictions in the Labor Market

To this point in our analysis of the labor market, we have treated the cost of labor to employers as having two characteristics. First, we have assumed that the wage rate employers must pay is given to them by the market; that is, the supply of labor curve to $a$ firm has been assumed to be horizontal (at the market wage). An employer cannot pay less than the going wage because, if it did so, its workers would instantly quit and go to firms paying the going wage. Likewise, it can acquire all the labor it wants at the market wage, so paying more would only raise its costs and reduce its ability to compete in the product market (as noted in chapter 3, only firms with product-market monopolies could pay more than they have to and still survive). Individual employers in competitive product markets, then, have been seen as wage takers (not wage makers), and their labor market decisions have involved only how much labor and capital to employ.

Second, we have treated all labor costs as variable-that is, as being strictly proportional to the length of time the employee works. Variable labor costs, such as the hourly wage rate, recur every period and, of course, can be reduced if the hours of work are reduced. By assuming that all labor costs are variable, we have in effect assumed that firms can instantaneoously adjust their labor input and associated costs as market conditions change.

The purpose of this chapter is to consider how the demand for labor is affected when we assume that both workers and firms find it costly to make changes to their behavior when demand or supply conditions are altered. Because higher costs of change, generally speaking, will cause workers and firms to display more resistance to change, economists borrow (loosely) a concept from physics and talk about these costs as causing labor market “frictions.” In this chapter, we will analyze the implications of frictions in the labor market. That is, we will explore the implications of assuming that workers find it costly to change employers and that firms find it costly to hire or fire workers.

In the first section, we look at frictions on the employee side of the market, analyzing the labor market effects of employee costs when moving among employers. We will see that as the costs to workers of changing employers rise, the hiring decisions firms make differ from predictions of the competitive model-especially in the presence of government-mandaled wages. We will also briefly investigate the implications of workers’ mobility costs for the observed correlations between wages and labor market experience, tenure with one’s employer, and unemployment.

# 劳动经济学代考

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.劳动市场的摩擦

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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