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我们提供的劳动经济学Labor Economics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON045

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Demand for Labor

Firms combine various factors of production-mainly capital and labor-to produce goods or services that are sold in a product market. Their total output and the way in which they combine labor and capital depend on three forces: product demand, the amount of labor and capital they can acquire at given prices, and the choice of technologies available to them. When we study the demand for labor, we are interested in finding out how the number of workers employed by a firm or set of firms is affected by changes in one or more of these three forces. To simplify the discussion, we shall study one change at a time while holding other forces constant.

Wage Changes How does the number of employees (or total labor hours) demanded vary when wages change? Suppose, for example, that we could vary the wages facing a certain industry over a long period of time but keep the technology available, the conditions under which capital is supplied, and the relationship between product price and product demand unchanged. What would happen to the quantity of labor demanded if the wage rate were increased?

First, higher wages imply higher costs and, usually, higher product prices. Because consumers respond to higher prices by buying less, employers would tend to reduce their levels of output and employment (other things being equal). This decline in employment is called a scale effect-the effect on desired employment of a smaller scale of production.
Second, as wages increase (assuming the price of capital does not change, at least initially), employers have incentives to cut costs by adopting a technology that relies more on capital and less on labor. Desired employment would fall because of a shift toward a more capital-intensive mode of production. This second effect is termed a substitution effect, because as wages rise, capital is substituted for labor in the production process.

The effects of various wages on employment levels might be summarized in a table showing the labor demanded at each wage level. Table $2.3$ illustrates such a demand schedule. The relationship between wages and employment tabulated in Table 2.3 could be graphed as a demand curve. Eigure $2.6$ shows the demand curve generated by the data in Table 2.3. Note that the curve has a negative slope, indicating that as wages rise, less labor is demanded. (Note also that we follow convention in economics by placing the wage rate on the vertical axis despite its being an independent variable in the context of labor demand by a firm.) A demand curve for labor tells us how the desired level of employment, measured in either labor hours or number of employees, varies with changes in the price of labor when the other forces affecting demand are held constant.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Supply of Labor

Having looked at a simple model of behavior on the buyer (or demand) side of the labor market, we now turn to the seller (or supply) side of the market. For the purposes of this chapter, we shall assume that workers have already decided to work and that the question facing them is what occupation and what employer to choose.

Market Supply To first consider the supply of labor to the entire market (as opposed to the supply to a particular firm), suppose that the market we are considering is the one for legal assistants (or “paralegals”). How will supply respond to changes in the wages paralegals might receive?

If the salaries and wages in other occupations are held constant and the wages of paralegals rise, we would expect to find more people wanting to become paralegals. For example, suppose that each of 100 people in a high school graduating class has the option of becoming an insurance agent or a paralegal. Some of these 100 people will prefer to be insurance agents even if paralegals are better paid, because they like the challenge and sociability of selling. Some would want to be paralegals even if the pay were comparatively poor, because they hate the pressures of selling. Many, however, could see themselves doing either job; for them, the compensation in each occupation would be a major factor in their decision.

Thus, the supply of labor to a particular market is positively related to the wage rate prevailing in that market, holding other wages constant. That is, if the wages of insurance agents are held constant and the paralegal wage rises, more people will want to become paralegals because of the relative improvement in compensation (as shown graphically in Figure 2.9).

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON045


经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Demand for Labor


工资变化 当工资变化时,所需的员工数量(或总工时)如何变化?例如,假设我们可以在很长一段时间内改变某个行业面临的工资,但保持技术可用、资本供应条件以及产品价格与产品需求之间的关系不变。如果工资率提高,劳动力需求量会发生什么变化?


各种工资对就业水平的影响可以总结在一个表格中,该表格显示了每个工资水平所需要的劳动力。桌子2.3说明了这样一个需求时间表。表 2.3 中列出的工资和就业之间的关系可以绘制成一条需求曲线。埃古雷2.6显示了由表 2.3 中的数据生成的需求曲线。请注意,曲线的斜率为负,表明随着工资的上升,对劳动力的需求减少。(另请注意,我们遵循经济学惯例,将工资率放在纵轴上,尽管它是公司劳动力需求背景下的一个独立变量。)劳动力需求曲线告诉我们期望的就业水平如何衡量在其他影响需求的因素保持不变的情况下,无论是劳动时间还是雇员人数,都会随着劳动力价格的变化而变化。

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Supply of Labor


市场供应 首先考虑整个市场的劳动力供应(而不是特定公司的供应),假设我们正在考虑的市场是法律助理(或“律师助理”)的市场。供应将如何应对律师助理可能收到的工资变化?

如果其他职业的工资和工资保持不变,律师助理的工资上涨,我们预计会有更多的人想成为律师助理。例如,假设高中毕业班的 100 人中的每一个人都可以选择成为保险代理人或律师助理。即使律师助理的薪水更高,这 100 人中的一些人更愿意成为保险代理人,因为他们喜欢销售的挑战和社交性。即使薪水相对较低,有些人也想成为律师助理,因为他们讨厌销售压力。然而,许多人可以看到自己在做任何一项工作。对他们来说,每个职业的报酬将是他们决定的主要因素。

因此,特定市场的劳动力供应与该市场普遍的工资率正相关,其他工资保持不变。也就是说,如果保险代理人的工资保持不变,而律师助理的工资上涨,由于薪酬相对提高,更多的人会想成为律师助理(如图 2.9 所示)。

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术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。



有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。





随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。


多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。


MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。