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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Law of One Price

The simple model of the labor market based on the assumption of costless employee mobility among employers has a powerful, and testable, prediction: workers who are of equal skills within occupations will receive the same wage. 1 This implication is known as the “law of one price,” and it rests squarely on the assumption that workers can move from employer to employer without delay and without cost. If a firm currently paying the market wage were to attempt to pay even a penny less per hour, this model assumes that it would instantly lose all its workers to firms paying the going wage. Furthermore, because an employer can obtain all the labor it wants at the going wage, none would get any advantage from paying more than the market. Thus, the market will assure that all workers with the same skill set will receive the same wages.

The problem with this prediction is that it does not seem to be supported by the facts. For example, how are we to explain that registered nurses in Albany, Madison, and Sacramento-all medium-sized state capitals with very comparable costs of livingreceived, on average, hourly wages of $\$ 29.64, \$35.54$, and $\$ 56.10$(respectively) in$2016 ? 2$We may also question how the market could permit the wages of payroll and timekeeping clerks in nursing care facilities to average, at$\$18.13$ per hour, 15 percent less than their counterparts working for insurance carriers. ${ }^3$

If workers were completely mobile across employers, these geographic, inter-firm, or cross-industry wage differentials within occupations could not be maintained (unless, as we comment in footnote 1, the working conditions at high-paying and low-paying firms are very different). Workers in these occupations who found themselves in low-wage firms would quit and move to the higher-wage firms, even if it meant changing the area in which they live or the industry in which they work. The fact that these wage differences are observed suggests that worker mobility is costly and, therefore, limited in some way.

It takes time and effort for nurses in Albany, for example, to find out that wages are higher in Sacramento-and once having found out, they will find it costly to apply, interview, move across country, and leave their friends and relatives in Albany. Similar costs will be borne by workers who may be candidates to move within the area in which they live to firms or industries paying higher wages; they must first go to the trouble of acquiring information and then bear the costs of applying and moving to a new employer.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Monopsonistic Labor Markets: A Definition

Economists describe the presence of upward-sloping labor supply curves to individual employers as creating monopsonistic conditions in the labor market. Explaining why we use this terminology takes us back to chapter 2 and the distinction between supply of labor curves to a market as opposed to individual firms in the market.

A labor market monopsonist is, strictly speaking, a firm that is the only buyer of labor in its labor market: a coal mine in an isolated small town in West Virginia, for example, or a pineapple plantation on a tiny Hawaiian island. In both these cases, the employer faces (as the only employer in the market) the market supply of labor curve, which we noted in chapter 2 is upward-sloping. For example, if a coal mine operator in an isolated town wants to expand its labor supply, it cannot simply get workers at the going wage from competing mines in the local area (there are none). Instead, it will have to increase wages to (a) attract miners who must move in from out of town; (b) attract workers from other occupations whose preferences were such that, at the old, lower mining wage, they preferred to work at a job that was less dangerous or dusty; or (c) induce people currently out of the labor force to seek paid employment.

In chapter 3 , we first developed the labor demand curve under the twin assumptions that both product and labor markets were competitive. Toward the end of the chapter, we briefly analyzed how product-market monopolies (only one seller of a product) affect the demand for labor, but we deferred the analysis of conditions under which the labor market is not competitive. We now return to our analysis of labor demand and consider the implications when the labor market is not completely competitive-that is, when mobility costs impede workers’ entry to, and exit from, various places of employment.

# 劳动经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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