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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Does the Minimum Wage Fight Poverty?

Aside from the potentlally adverse effects on employment opportunities for low-wage workers, two other reasons suggest that the minimum wage is a relatively ineffective instrument to reduce poverty. First, many who live in poverty are not affected by the minimum wage, either because they are not employed or because their wages, while low, are already above the minimum. For example, one study of the minimum wage increases in 1990-1991 divided the distribution of family incomes into 10 equally sized groups (deciles). Among adults in the lowest decile, 80 percent were below the poverty line (given the size of their families), yet only about one-quarter of them worked; of those who did work, less than one-third earned wages that were less than the new minimum!19 Thus, even without any loss of employment opportunities, less than 10 percent of those in the lowest income decile stood to benefit from the 1990-1991 increases in the minimum wage.

Second, many of those most affected by the minimum wage are teenagers, who may not reside in poor families. The study cited earlier found that only 19 percent of the estimated earnings increases generated by the higher minimum wage went to families with incomes below the poverty line, while over 50 percent of the increases went to families whose incomes were at least twice the poverty level.

Despite the above limitations of minimum-wage laws as a means for fighting poverty, in the 2016 presidential campaign, and in many state and local governmental discussions, raising the federal minimum wage from $\$ 7.15$to$\$15$ per hour was discussed. While we will use the theory in chapter 5 to analyze the potential effects of such a large increase, two comments are in order here. First, the employment effects of increasing the minimum wage have been studied in the context of increases (over 2-3 years) that have never exceeded 10 percent. A deubling of the minimum wage is far vulside the bounds of what we have observed in the past, so it is not at all clear that the employment effects found in the past are predictive. Second, doubling the minimum wage would expand the number of workers affected beyond teenagers and the very low-paid, and so could-if employment effects were not too large-serve to reduce the number in poverty more effectively than a lower minimum wage.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|”Living Wage” Laws

Perhaps because the federal minimum wage is relatively low and has not been changed very often, roughly 100 cities, counties, and school districts in the United States have adopted “living wage” ordinances. These ordinances apply to a subset of employers within their jurisdictions and impose wage floors that are higher than either federal or state minimum wages on these employers. The affected employers are generally those performing contracts with the local government, although in some cases, the ordinances also apply to employers receiving business assistance from the city or county. Living wage levels usually relate to the federal poverty guidelines, which in 2016 were $\$ 20,160$for a family of three and$\$24,300$ for a family of four in the continental United States (it takes wages of $\$ 10$to$\$12$ per hour to reach these poverty lines). In 2016, typical wage levels specified by living wage laws were in the range of $\$ 10$to$\$15$ per hour.

The potentially beneficial effects of living wage ordinances for low-wage workers are obviously limited by the rather narrow group of employers to which they apply. The benefits are also reduced, of course, if these laws cause the affected employers to either reduce their employment levels or move their operations to cities that do not have living wage regulations.

Estimating the employment effects of adopting living wage laws, however, requires more than merely comparing employment changes in cities with and without such regulations, because the two groups of cities may have fundamentally different employment or wage trends. Cities with rapidly expanding employment opportunities, for example, may decide differently about adopting a living wage law than cities with stagnant or declining opportunities. Because these laws are relatively new, and because the best way to evaluate their employment effects is subject to debate, there is currently no consensus about how living wage ordinances affect employment. $\frac{20}{2}$

# 劳动经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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