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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Earnings of Labor

The actions of buyers and sellers in the labor market serve both to allocate and to set prices for various kinds of labor. From a social perspective, these prices act as signals or incentives in the allocation process-a process that relies primarily on individual and voluntary decisions. From the workers’ point of view, the price of labor is important in determining income-and, hence, purchasing power.

Nominal and Real Wages The wage rate is the price of labor per working hour. ${ }^5$ The nominal wage is what workers get paid per hour in current dollars; nominal wages are most useful in comparing the pay of various workers at a given time. Real wages, nominal wages divided by some measure of prices, suggest how much can be purchased with workers’ nominal wages. For example, if a worker earns $\$ 64$a day and a pair of shoes cost$\$32$, we could say the worker earns the equivalent of two pairs of shoes a day Calculations of real wages are especially useful in comparing the purchasing power of workers’ earnings over a period of time when both nominal wages and product prices are changing. For example, suppose we were interested in trying to determine what happened to the real wages of American nonsupervisory workers over the period from 1980 to 2012. We can note from Table $2.2$ that the average hourly earnings of these workers in the private sector were $\$ 6.85$in$1980, \$10.20$ in $1990, \$ 14.02$in 2000 , and$\$21.04$ in 2015; thus, nominal wage rates were clearly rising over this period. However, the prices such workers had to pay for the items they bought were also rising over this period, so a method of accounting for price inflation must be used in calculating real wages.

The most widely used measure for comparing the prices consumers face over several years is the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Generally speaking, this index is derived by determining what a fixed bundle of consumer goods and services (including food, housing, clothing, transportation, medical care, and entertainment) costs each year. The cost of this bundle in the base period is then set to equal 100 , and the index numbers for all other years are set proportionately to this base period.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|How the Labor Market Works

As shown diagrammatically in Figure 2.5, the labor market is one of three markets in which firms must successfully operate if they are to survive; the other two are the capital market and the product market. The labor and capital markets are the major ones in which firms’ inputs are purchased, and the product market is the one in which output is sold. In reality, of course, a firm may deal in many different labor, capital, or product markets simultaneously.

Study of the labor market begins and ends with an analysis of the demand for and supply of labor. On the demand side of the labor market are employers, whose decisions about the hiring of labor are influenced by conditions in all three markets. On the supply side of the labor market are workers and potential workers, whose decisions about where (and whether) to work must take into account their other options for how to spend time.
It is useful to remember that the major labor market outcomes are related to (a) the terms of employment (wages, compensation levels, working conditions) and (b) the levels of employment. In analyzing both these outcomes, one must usually differentiate among the various occupational, skill, or demographic groups that make up the overall labor market. Any labor market outcome is always affected, to one degree or another, by the forces of both demand and supply. To paraphrase economist Alfred Marshall, it takes both demand and supply to determine economic outcomes, just as it takes both blades of a pair of scissors to cut cloth.

In this chapter, we present the basic outlines and broadest implications of the simplest economic model of the labor market. In later chapters, we shall add some complexities to this basic model and explain assumptions and implications more fully. However, the simple model of demand and supply presented here offers some insights into labor market behavior that can be very useful in the formulation of social policy. Every piece of analysis in this text is an extension or modification of the basic model presented in this chapter.

# 劳动经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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