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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Sources of Growth

In the previous chapter, we indicated that the production function is the relationship between output, production inputs, and technology. In this relationship, output growth is often linked to the degree of technological innovation and to the growth of capital and labor in the economy.
Labor and capital shares are measured in the national accounts. In most Latin American countries, the share of income from labor (i.e., the sum of a country’s citizens’ work income) as a percentage of total GDP is low compared to that of developed countries mainly because labor is relatively abundant and wages are low. Additionally, the share or labor income as a percentage of total GDP may also be low owing to the existence of self-employment and small businesses, which, if not correctly accounted for, hides from the statistician what percentage of income corresponds to wages and how much corresponds to the profits from personal activities.

Let us clarify this point with an example. Assume that the share of labor production of GDP is 40 percent, while the share of capital is 60 percent. Now, suppose that the labor force increases by $1.8$ percent annually, technology grows by $1.6$ percent, and the capital stock grows by $4.2$ percent. In this case, we would predict an annual increase in GDP of $4.8$ percent $(1.6 \%+(0.4 \times 1.8 \%)+(0.6 \times 4.2 \%))$.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Factors behind Economic Growth

Savings and investment decisions, as well as the efficiency of such investments, depend to a large extent on economic policies, institutions, and even the physical geography of a country or region.

There is now enough evidence to identify the key empirical factors that best explain the growth of different countries over the past forty years.

• Economic policies are fundamental to growth. For example, countries that maintain open markets, both for domestic and for international trade, are generally more successful than more closed economies, where the government actively participates in production and places restrictions on markets. This seems to be the case in Southeast Asian economies, where the size of the countries’ trade (the sum of exports and imports) greatly exceeds the value of their GDP. This result is a useful measure of the value of market openness, where trading for more than the value of the GDP indicates that the welfare of a country’s citizens exceeds that which they would have if the GDP were limited to only national production, and more specifically, it is significantly benefited from international production. For example, in 2015, Malaysia’s trade was around $1.3$ times GDP, in Singapore it was $3.3$ times GDP, and in Hong Kong it was no less than 4 times the value of GDP. This degree of openness is far from the Latin American average, where trade accounts for only about 40 percent of GDP ( $0.4$ the value of GDP).

# 宏观经济学代考

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Factors behind Economic Growth

• 经济政策是增长的基础。例如，在国内和国际贸易方面保持开放市场的国家通常比更封闭的经济体更成功，后者政府积极参与生产并限制市场。东南亚经济体似乎就是这种情况，各国的贸易规模（出口和进口的总和）大大超过其 GDP 的价值。这一结果是衡量市场开放价值的有用指标，其中交易超过 GDP 的价值表明一个国家公民的福利超过了如果 GDP 仅限于国家生产，他们将获得的福利，更具体地说，它显着受益于国际生产。例如，2015 年，马来西亚的贸易额约为1.3乘以国内生产总值，在新加坡是3.3是 GDP 的倍数，而在香港，它不低于 GDP 的 4 倍。这种开放程度与拉丁美洲的平均水平相差甚远，拉丁美洲的贸易仅占 GDP 的 40% 左右（0.4GDP 的价值）。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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