assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师

assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Number of Firms in Modern GE

In the formalization of the general equilibrium of a market economy with production, traditionally the number of firms was treated as endogenously determined by the equilibrium itself (if not indeterminate, when firms themselves, and not only industries, have CRS). Modern theorists often adopt a different approach, and the issue requires some explanation.

Neoclassical value and distribution theory originally intended to determine the analogous for the entire economy of the long-period positions we have studied for partial equilibria. This notion of equilibrium appeared inevitable for the study of equilibrium on factor markets. The tendency towards an equilibrium rate of rent for lands of the same type or towards an equilibrium wage rate for labourers of similar skills cannot but be slow, both because factor rentals are usually fixed by contract for some time length, and because any change in the average rental of a factor alters relative production costs and hence relative product prices, hence product demands, hence factor demands; so the theory must admit that any state of rest temporarily reached by a factor market will be disturbed again and again before a general equilibrium can be sufficiently approached. During this time there is time for firms to alter their fixed plants, and for the number of firms in an industry to be altered, and therefore a long-period analysis of what happens to each industry is inescapable. Industries were treated as having constant returns to scale, and it was assumed that, in equilibrium, supplies of produced goods would equal demands at zero-profit (i.e. at $\operatorname{Min} L A C$ ) product prices.

In modern articles and books on competitive general equilibrium it is on the contrary common (although not universal) to assume a given number of firms, each one with its own production function or production possibility set. Firmlevel decreasing returns to scale are not excluded, indeed they are often assumed. Then the payment to each factor of its marginal revenue product can leave a profit. ${ }^{42}$ These profits go to firm owners.

The first such treatment of the number of firms in general equilibrium theory is found in Hicks’s Value and Capital (1939), where individuals are not only consumers but also potential entrepreneurs, each one with different ‘entrepreneurial capacities’ that influence the production function of the firms they own or might set up. Depending on prices, the potential firm a consumer might set up may be able to make non-negative profits, in which case it will be active.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Equations of the Non-capitalistic General Equilibrium

I illustrate now the traditional formalization of the general competitive equilibrium of production and exchange, still without capital goods. All produced goods are consumption goods. Factors are fully transferable across industries and firms; competition with free entry has had the time to eliminate less efficient firms; product prices equal minimum average costs; industries have constant returns to scale. The equilibrium is a long-period equilibrium. It is static, in that changes of its data over time (e.g. owing to population growth) are neglected as sufficiently slow relative to the presumable speed of gravitation towards equilibrium. In the traditional presentation of this kind of equilibrium it is generally further assumed (and I will assume) that one can neglect borrowing and lending among consumers, and hence no interest rate will appear in the equations; under these assumptions the equilibrium of a period has no need to include references to what happens in other periods, so in its equations no time index appears.

This fact has induced many recent theorists-no longer familiar with the notion of equilibrium as determining a normal (or long-period) position of sufficiently persistent flows, and rather accustomed by neo-Walrasian equilibria to the idea that equilibrium must refer to a precise instant and must distinguish prices and quantities of that instant from those of subsequent moments by dating them-to mistakenly interpret the non-capitalistic equilibrium as atemporal in the sense of referring to a world where time does not exist, or at least implicitly assuming that production and exchange as well as the adjustments to equilibrium prices and quantities are instantaneous. Thus a recent advanced microeconomics textbook declares: [In the basic model of general equilibrium] each commodity has a price, with all trading seemingly done in a single instant. And, if we are all production by firms is also instantaneous’ (Kreps 2013, p. 386). The reason is that the moment exchanges and production are admitted to take time, modern general equilibrium theory dates commodities and considers the same commodity sold today or tomorrow two different commodities with generally different prices; if commodities are not dated, it is inferred that one is referring to an equilibrium where there is a single date, so everything including production must be done ‘in a single instant’. It is not grasped that traditional marginalist economists never entertained the idea of instantaneous production and exchanges; they fully accepted that economic activity takes time, but had no need to date commodities because they conceived cquilibrium as a normal or long-period position, a persistent situation of equilibrium of flows repeating themselves essentially unaltered, with relative equilibrium prices unchanged from today to tomorrow.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

assignmentutor™作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师