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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|MARKET-LEVEL VERSUS BRAND-LEVEL

A common mistake in the use of price elasticities of demand is to suppose that just because the demand for a product is inelastic, the demand each seller of that product faces is also inelastic. Consider, for example, cigarettes. As already discussed, the demand for cigarettes is not especially sensitive to price: An increase in the price of all brands of cigarettes would only modestly affect overall cigarette demand. However, if the price of only a single brand of cigarettes (e.g., Salem) went up, the demand for that brand would probably drop substantially because consumers would switch to the now lower-priced brands whose prices did not change. Thus, even if demand is inelastic at the market level, it can be highly elastic at the individual brand level.

The distinction between market-level and brand-level elasticities reflects the impact of substitution possibilities on the degree to which consumers are sensitive to price. In the case of cigarettes, for example, a typical smoker needs cigarettes because there are no good alternatives. But that smoker doesn’t necessarily need Salem cigarettes because, when the price of Salem goes up, switching to another brand will provide more or less the same degree of satisfaction.

What determines whether a firm should use market-level or brand-level elasticity in assessing the effect of a price change? The answer depends on what the firm expects its competitors to do. If a firm expects its rivals to quickly match its price change, then the market-level elasticity will provide the appropriate measure of how the demand for the firm’s product is likely to changee with price. If, by contrast, a firm expécts its rivals not to match its price change (or to do so only after a long time lag), then the brandlevel elasticity is appropriate.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND

The income elasticity of demand is the ratio of the percentage change of quantity demanded to the percentage change of income, holding price and all other determinants of demand constant:
$$\epsilon_{Q, l}=\frac{\frac{M Q}{Q} \times 100 \%}{\frac{M}{I} \times 100 \%}$$
or, after rearranging terms,
$$\epsilon_{Q, l}=\frac{\Delta Q}{\Delta I} \frac{I}{Q}$$
Table $2.5$ shows estimated income elasticities of demand for two different types of U.S. households: those whose incomes place them below the poverty line and those whose incomes place them above it. For both types of households, the estimated income elasticities of demand are positive, indicating that the quantity demanded of the good increases as income increases. However, it is also possible that income elasticity of demand can be negative. Some studies suggest that in economically advanced countries in Asia, such as Japan and Taiwan, the income elasticity of demand for rice is negative. ${ }^{19}$

# 微观经济学代考

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND

$$\epsilon_{Q, l}=\frac{\frac{M Q}{Q} \times 100 \%}{\frac{M}{I} \times 100 \%}$$

$$\epsilon_{Q, l}=\frac{\Delta Q}{\Delta I} \frac{I}{Q}$$

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
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