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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 物理代写|光电技术代写Photovoltaic Technology代考|CMV Clamping

With galvanic isolation method alone, the leakage current is not completely eliminated as explained in the previous section. The CMV in these topologies cannot be manipulated via PWM due to the parasitic parameters of the resonant circuit. In order to generate constant CMV, clamping branch is introduced [15], as shown in Fig. 20. Generally, the clamping branch consists of diodes or switches and a capacitor divider which ensures the freewheeling path is clamped to the half of the input voltage $\left(V_{\mathrm{DC}} / 2\right)$. With the combined effect of galvanic isolation and CMV clamping, leakage current is completely eliminated.

Figure 21 illustrates the conduction mode of CMV clamping topology which employs DC decoupling method during the positive half-cycle. $S_1$ and $S_4$ conduct to generate the desired output voltage. At the same time, $V_{\mathrm{A}}$ is directly connected to $V_{\mathrm{DC}}$ and $V_{\mathrm{B}}$ is connected to the negative terminal $(N)$ of the dc-link. Thus, the CMV becomes
$$V_{\mathrm{CM}}=\frac{V_{\mathrm{AN}}+V_{\mathrm{BN}}}{2}=\frac{1}{2}\left(V_{\mathrm{DC}}+0\right)=\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}$$
In the freewheeling mode, the DC bypass switch disconnects the DC link from the grid. At this moment, the clamping branch operates, as shown in Fig. 22, so that point A and point B are clamped to $V_{\mathrm{DC}} / 2$. The CMV reads
$$V_{\mathrm{CM}}=\frac{V_{\mathrm{AN}}+V_{\mathrm{BN}}}{2}=\frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}+\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}\right)=\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}$$
The CMV clamping branch ensures the complete clamping of the freewheeling path to constant. As a result, the leakage current is completely eliminated. It is worth noting that the CMV branch is employed with DC- or AC decoupling branch for leakage current reduction. The latter provides lower losses due to the reduced switch count in conduction path as explained earlier.

## 物理代写|光电技术代写Photovoltaic Technology代考|Full-Bridge Topology

Full-bridge topology is widely used for various applications due to the simplicity of design and low cost. The full-bridge structure consists of four switches, $S_1-S_4$, as shown in Fig. 23. Conventionally, the full-bridge topology is modulated by bipolar modulation for transformerless application.

Each pair of the diagonal switches, i.e., $S_1, S_4$ and $S_2, S_3$, is operated simultaneously at switching frequency during the positive and negative half-cycle respectively. Current flows through the corresponding pair of diagonal switches to generate the desired output voltage. Bipolar modulation is also known as two-level modulation. As shown in Fig. 24, it generates two-level output voltage, i.e., $+V_{\mathrm{DC}}$ and $-V_{\mathrm{DC}}$. In every switching transition, the voltage changes across the inductor by twice of input voltage, $2 V_{\mathrm{DC}}$. This doubles the voltage stress, current ripple and loss across the filter inductors. Thus, the overall efficiency is reduced. Larger filter inductors are required to compensate the high PWM ripple which leads to higher cost.

With bipolar modulation technique, the CMV is constant as illustrated in Fig. 25. The leakage current is completely eliminated. The results show that bipolar modulation is suitable for transformerless PV inverter applications at the expense of reduced system efficiency.

# 光电技术代考

## 物理代写|光电技术代写光伏技术代考|CMV钳

$$V_{\mathrm{CM}}=\frac{V_{\mathrm{AN}}+V_{\mathrm{BN}}}{2}=\frac{1}{2}\left(V_{\mathrm{DC}}+0\right)=\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}$$

$$V_{\mathrm{CM}}=\frac{V_{\mathrm{AN}}+V_{\mathrm{BN}}}{2}=\frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}+\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}\right)=\frac{V_{\mathrm{DC}}}{2}$$CMV夹紧分支确保自由轮路径的完全夹紧到恒定。因此，泄漏电流被完全消除。值得注意的是，CMV支路与直流或交流解耦支路一起使用，以减少泄漏电流。后者提供了更低的损失，由于减少了开关计数在传导路径，如前所述

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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