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assignmentutor-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写心理学Psychology方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写心理学Psychology代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写心理学Psychology相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|TRAIT APPROACHES

Traits are enduring and consistent ways of behaving. For example, trait anxiety refers to a person’s tendency to perceive nondangerous people and events as threatening and respond with high levels of worry and arousal. Each individual has some level of trait anxiety or likelihood to display worry and nervousness in response to non-dangerous events. Some people have a low likelihood, while others have a higher tendency to experience anxiety. Whereas traits are enduring and consistent ways of behaving, states are feelings, thoughts, and behaviours that people experience in the present moment (a “right now” reaction). States can change quickly as situations and people change.

A contemporary trait theory that has become popular and gained acceptance among many psychologists is the five-factor model in which similar traits are grouped under five dimensions, as illustrated in Table $2.1$ (Widiger, 2017). Some of the five factor dimensions, such as neuroticism and conscientiousness, may predict sport performance (Mirzaei et al., 2013; Piedmont et al., 1999). Much research examining the trait-sport performance relationship, however, has been descriptive and cross-sectional. Referring to Box $1.1$ in the last chapter, descriptive research cannot determine if traits influence performance or if performance influences traits. An experiment is the suitable type of study to find out if traits cause performance. Perhaps there is another variable that influences both performance and the trait. For example, maybe good coaching helps athletes develop both their performance levels and conscientiousness. An overreliance on descriptive research is one reason why numerous sport psychology practitioners have criticised trait theories. Another reason is that they believe trait theories often fail to acknowledge enough the influence the situation has on behaviour and performance. Sport psychology practitioners have divided opinions on the value of the trait approach in explaining sport performance.

## 心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|SOCIAL-COGNITIVE APPROACHES

Social-cognitive theorists emphasize cognitive processes in understanding people’s characteristics and behaviour. Some examples of cognitive processes include how people handle information, regulate their behaviour, and evaluate the possible consequences of their actions. To illustrate, to predict athletes’ likelihood of taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, we would benefit from knowing:

• Their thoughts about their skill levels compared to others (information processing)
• The amount of time and effort they spend preparing for competition (degree of self-regulation)
• Their beliefs about how much improvement they will gain from consuming drugs (evaluating of consequences)

We might predict athletes will be tempted to use illegal substances if they believe they are less skilled than competitors, they cannot think of other ways to improve performance, and they consider they will gain many benefits from taking drugs.

Although social-cognitive theorists acknowledge that the environment influences behaviour, they argue that it does so through the filters provided by people’s worldviews. As an example, the extent that praise from a coach increases desirable training behaviours in a youth team will be influenced by the athletes’ perceptions of the positive feedback. Some athletes may relish the praise and change their behaviour more than teammates who do not believe the coaches’ words. The same environmental factor (coach praise) yields different effects depending on the players’ interpretations.

# 心理学代写

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## 心理学代写|心理学代写psychology代考|SOCIAL-COGNITIVE methods

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• 他们对自己与他人相比的技能水平的想法(信息处理)
• 他们为准备比赛所花的时间和精力(自我调节程度)
• 他们对自己从服用药物中获得多少改善的信念(后果评估)

## 有限元方法代写

assignmentutor™作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师
assignmentutor™您的专属作业导师