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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等楖率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Globally Distributed Environment

GSD refers to software development that is done by multiple teams in different geographic locations. The teams are separated physically, and they are located in different countries within one region or around the world. The teams can either be from one organization or from multiple different organizations (outsourcing) [8].
Global software development is usually considered to be much more difficult than collocated software development given the many different challenges related to the software development in a globally distributed setting. These challenges include negative impact of physical distance, cultural differences, and many other complexity factors which are elaborated in the following subsections $[9,10]$.

Past studies have shown that tasks take about $2.5$ times longer in distributed setting than in collocated setting $[11,12]$. Other studies reported that about $40 \%$ of GSD projects fail to deliver the expected benefits, due to the lack of theoretical basis and difficult complications in GSD project $[13,14]$. On the other hand, Teasley et al. [15] reported that in collocated teams, productivity and job satisfaction are much higher than projects that do locate the entire project team in a war room.

The additional activities and difficulties in global software development require additional effort for substantial planning, coordination, and control overhead in the day-to-day governance of global software development. This additional effort should be considered in the time and cost estimation. Hence the time and cost estimation in GSD is more complex than in local development.

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Challenges

Although GSD offers several benefits, the distributed work has also many challenges (Table 2.1). If globally distributed software projects are not managed neatly, then they are likely to turn any company into a loss-making business [16]. That means that there are many challenges associated with global software development. Physical separation among project members has diverse effects on many levels. The following factors have been gathered from research literature [17] to have an impact on the amount of effort and cost required for global software development.:

• Geographic distance: Software development, particularly in the early stages, requires much communication, coordination, and control [18]. Geographical distance is a measure of the effort required for one actor to visit another and can be seen as reducing the intensity of communication [19], especially when people experience problems with media and have difficulties finding a sufficiently good substitute for face-to-face interaction [20]. Kraut and Streeter [21] found that formal communication is useful for routine coordination, while informal communication is needed to face uncertainty and unanticipated problems, which are typical of software development. They observed that the need for informal communication increases dramatically as the size and complexity of the software increase. In a large software organization, developers can spend on average up to $75 \mathrm{~min}$ per day for informal unplanned communication [22]. In general, low geographical distance offers greater opportunity for periods of collocated teamwork.
• Temporal distance: Time zone differs among project members when development team is distributed around the world. Temporal distance is a measure of the dislocation in time experienced by two actors wishing to interact [19]. Temporal distance can be caused by time zone difference or time shifting work patterns and can be seen as a factor that reduces opportunities for real-time collaboration, as response time increases when working hours at remote locations do not overlap [23]. Temporal dispersion reduces the possibilities of synchronous interaction, which is a critical communicational attribute for real-time problem solving and design activities. In practice, teams in different time zones have few hours in the work day when multiple sites can participate in a joint synchronous meetings and discussions. Temporal dispersion can also make misunderstandings and errors more likely to occur [24].

# 软件项目代考

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Globally Distributed Environment

GSD 是指由多个团队在不同地理位置完成的软件开发。这些团队在物理上是分开的，它们位于一个地区或世界各地的不同国家。团队可以来自一个组织，也可以来自多个不同的组织（外包）[8]。

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Challenges

• 地理距离：软件开发，特别是在早期阶段，需要大量的沟通、协调和控制 [18]。地理距离是衡量一个演员访问另一个演员所需努力的指标，可以被视为降低交流的强度 [19]，尤其是当人们遇到媒体问题并且难以找到足够好的替代面对面交流时互动[20]。Kraut 和 Streeter [21] 发现正式沟通对于日常协调很有用，而非正式沟通则需要面对不确定性和意料之外的问题，这是软件开发的典型特征。他们观察到，随着软件规模和复杂性的增加，对非正式沟通的需求急剧增加。在大型软件组织中，75 分钟每天进行非正式的计划外交流 [22]。一般来说，较低的地理距离为并置的团队合作提供了更多的机会。
• 时间距离：当开发团队分布在世界各地时，项目成员之间的时区不同。时间距离是对希望互动的两个参与者所经历的时间错位的度量[19]。时间距离可能是由时区差异或时移工作模式引起的，并且可以被视为减少实时协作机会的一个因素，因为当远程位置的工作时间不重叠时响应时间会增加[23]。时间分散降低了同步交互的可能性，这是实时问题解决和设计活动的关键通信属性。在实践中，不同时区的团队在工作日的几个小时内可以参与多个站点的联合同步会议和讨论。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

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