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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|供应链管理代写supply chain management代考|JNB330

经济代写|供应链管理代写supply chain management代考|Strategic choices and design levers

The use of Design Levers must start from a clear identification of the production system’s primary goals, in turn derived from the company’s more general strategic goals, according to the approach defined as Strategic Alignment or Strategic Fit.

Those goals, often linked to a company’s positioning on its market, must in fact pervade all of the company’s activities; and while indicating the trajectory of the competitive efforts, must define the sub-units’ goals (in terms of process, project, etc.), with a cascading effect, including those in the area under investigation here, Operations. As illustrated in Figure 1.5, and limited to the area considered in this book, the sub-units’ goals can be numerous and often antithetical. For example, think of a logistics system that attempts to jointly pursue limited investments in stock and high levels of service, or a production line which seeks maximum saturation and versatility, or of a company that pursues low costs and a high quality of resources used. The traditional approach to production choices is thus based on the concept of focalization: in the presence of divergent objectives, it is necessary to prefer one (or some that are coherent with each other) and consider the others residually, like dependent variables. Competing on cost cannot translate into sacrifices of quality and service. Searching for personalization of production, all other conditions being equal, necessarily leads to an increase in management complexity.

Having defined the set of objectives assigned to the logistics-production system, it is now necessary to shape a situation able to adequately respond to the priorities identified, through the use and coherent integration of all of its components, or design and management levers.

经济代写|供应链管理代写supply chain management代考|Typological analysis of production processes

Before addressing the relevant issues in Operations Management, it is necessary to at least briefly examine the characteristics of the different production processes that we will consider. Here, we limit ourselves to suggesting two models of typological analysis of production processes, that in our view lend themselves more than others to highlighting the distinctive characteristics and to supplying the framework in which to situate the problems dealt with in this book.

The two classifications, despite dealing with the same theme, are not to be consid ered alternatives, due to the different intentions behind them. The first is particularly useful for descriptive purposes, despite offering an essentially static perspective. The second, in introducing elements regarding management and due to greater intrinsic dynamism, comes closer to the areas explored in the book. As we proceed we will thus constantly refer to both, with the aim of maintaining a single conceptual frame of reference regarding the issues observed, that unites the proper terminological rigor with the technical-management approach adopted as the leitmotiv of the work.

Figure $2.1$ shows the first classification, that identifies three essential profiles for the analysis of production systems: the methods of responding to demand, the criteria for managing the production volumes, and the characteristics of realizing the produci (Brandulese ei al., 1991).

On the vertical axis of the three-dimensional representation, we see the distinction relating to the Methods of response to demand: Production aimed at replenishing a stock level, also defined as MTS – Make To Stock (or Assemble to Stock or Delivery to Order) is highlighted – which generally entails working based on forecasts, anticipating the production phase with respect to that of acquiring orders, and Production to order, in which the transformation takes place following the acquisition of the client’s order. We can also distinguish between a differentiated (or single) order, also known as ETO – Engineering To Order – for which it is necessary to await the order to launch the product’s design and execution phases, and a characterized (or repetitive) order, for which the general design is prior to the time of acquisition of the order, except for detailed interventions and customization, and it becomes necessary to proceed only with its execution. In terms of the method of managing Production to order flows, this is possible through systems such as ATO – Assemble To Order, MTO – Make To Order and PTO – Purchase To Order, depending on the section of the production cycle influenced by the specifications of the client order. In cases where both the design and the definition of product specifications completely precede the order and the physical production, we generally speak of catalogue production to order.

经济代写|供应链管理代写supply chain management代考|JNB330


经济代写|供应链管理代写supply chain management代考|Strategic choices and design levers


这些目标通常与公司在市场上的定位有关,实际上必须贯穿于公司的所有活动;并且在指明竞争努力的轨迹的同时,必须定义子单位的目标(在流程、项目等方面),并具有级联效应,包括在此处调查的区域中的目标,即运营。如图 1.5 所示,并且仅限于本书所考虑的领域,子单元的目标可能很多,而且常常是对立的。例如,一个物流系统试图共同追求有限的库存投资和高水平的服务,或者一个追求最大饱和度和多功能性的生产线,或者一个追求低成本和高质量资源使用的公司。因此,传统的生产选择方法基于聚焦的概念:在存在不同目标的情况下,有必要选择一个(或一些相互一致的目标)并剩余地考虑其他目标,如因变量。成本竞争不能转化为质量和服务的牺牲。在所有其他条件相同的情况下,寻求生产的个性化必然会导致管理复杂性的增加。


经济代写|供应链管理代写supply chain management代考|Typological analysis of production processes



数字2.1显示了第一个分类,它确定了分析生产系统的三个基本概况:响应需求的方法、管理生产量的标准和实现生产的特征(Brandulese ei al.,1991)。

在三维表示的垂直轴上,我们看到与响应需求的方法有关的区别: 旨在补充库存水平的生产,也定义为 MTS – 按库存生产(或按库存组装或按订单交货)突出显示 – 这通常需要根据预测工作,预测与获取订单相关的生产阶段,以及生产到订单,其中转换发生在获取客户订单之后。我们还可以区分差异化(或单一)订单,也称为 ETO – Engineering To Order – 为此需要等待订单以启动产品的设计和执行阶段,以及特征(或重复)订单,用于总体设计在获得订单之前,除了详细的干预和定制,有必要仅继续执行。在管理生产到订单流程的方法方面,这可以通过 ATO – 按订单组装、MTO – 按订单生产和 PTO – 按订单采购等系统来实现,具体取决于生产周期中受产品规格影响的部分。客户订单。如果产品规格的设计和定义完全先于订单和实物生产,我们通常所说的目录生产是按订单生产的。MTO – 按订单生产和 PTO – 按订单采购,具体取决于受客户订单规格影响的生产周期部分。如果产品规格的设计和定义完全先于订单和实物生产,我们通常所说的目录生产是按订单生产的。MTO – 按订单生产和 PTO – 按订单采购,具体取决于受客户订单规格影响的生产周期部分。如果产品规格的设计和定义完全先于订单和实物生产,我们通常所说的目录生产是按订单生产的。

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术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。



有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。





随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。


多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。


MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。